The climate of the continent is affected by the constant movement of air due to the formation of areas of high and low atmospheric pressure, especially the western transport – the constant wind of temperate latitudes. From the area of high pressure over the Atlantic Ocean, it brings moist sea air to the continent. Marine air masses leave the most moisture on the western coast of Europe, where about 1000 mm of precipitation a year falls. Moving above the mainland, air masses change their properties: they give off moisture, and also heat up from the land in summer and are cooled in winter. Therefore, with the advance into the interior of Eurasia, the annual amount of precipitation decreases, and the annual amplitudes of temperature oscillations increase. This is facilitated by
The climate of the Arabian Peninsula is affected by the Northeast Trade Wind. He brings dry and hot air to the Arabian Peninsula from the central parts of Asia. From the polar latitudes the North-Eastern winds ensure the arrival of cold and dry arctic air to the continent. Their invasion is caused by sudden cold snaps, spring and autumn frosts.
Very powerful seasonal winds are forming in the east and south of Eurasia – monsoons. Their formation is associated with a different rate of heating of the continent and the ocean. It is known that the land quickly heats up and quickly gives off heat, the ocean masses slowly heat up and slowly cool.
In summer, the land in Asia is very hot and above it is formed a region of low atmospheric pressure – the Asian minimum. Here from the Pacific and Indian oceans, where the pressure is somewhat higher, moist air masses move. So there is a summer monsoon. He brings a large amount of precipitation to South and South-East Asia. So, on the Hindustan peninsula at the foot of the Himalayas there is a “pole of rain” – the city of Cherapunji. Here an average of 10-12 thousand mm of precipitation falls. Tourists coming here are surprised: there
In winter, dry land in Asia quickly cools and over it creates a high atmospheric pressure – the Asian maximum. Its center is located near Lake Baikal in Siberia. Here in January, temperatures drop to -40 ° C. From the center of high pressure, cold and dry air spreads in all directions, including to the east – towards the Pacific Ocean and to the south – towards the Indian. So there is a winter monsoon.
In the intermontane basins, where the cold air flows and where cold air stagnates, the temperature is even lower. Thus, the lowest air temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere are fixed in Oimyakon city – 71 ° C, and in Verkhoyansk 68 ° С.