Due to the prevalence of dry and hot climate in Australia there are few surface waters and many underground ones.
The rivers and lakes of the continent belong to three basins: the internal runoff of the Indian and Pacific oceans. Only in the east, in the mountains where there is enough rainfall, short rivers do not dry up. In the rest of the territory they do not have a constant watercourse. In the interior desert and semi-desert areas, there are a lot of dry channels called screams. Water appears in them only during infrequent rains. The mainland’s rivers are fed by rain and underground water.
The longest river in Australia is Murray with the tributary Darling. Murray originates from the Great Dividing Range and carries water to the Indian Ocean. During the rains, the
In Australia, a large number of lakes, mainly related to the basin of internal flow. Most of them do not have runoff and are saline. They are of relic origin, that is, they arose after the liberation of the Central Lowland from the waters of the ancient sea. The fillability of the lakes of the lakes with water depends on the season. In the dry season, they sometimes completely dry up. The largest pond of the continent is Lake Eyre, whose water level lies below sea level. During a drought the lake breaks up into many small lakes, which during the rains merge, flooding a large area. There are no living organisms in Lake Eyre. Because of this, it is called the “dead heart of Australia”.
The lack of surface water is partially compensated by the wealth of the underground, lying in numerous artesian basins. The artesian waters of Australia are brackish, so they are used for sheep watering and technical needs. In the Central Lowland, artesian wells are practically the only source of fresh water.