Feudal disunity in Europe could not last forever because it quickly fed everyone. The unending feuds between the great feudal lords, with shaky royalty, cost the society dearly, because they were waged by the devastation and blood. Tired of them all – and the small and medium feudal lords, townspeople, and peasants. Many were convinced that the monarch’s sole power, although it could turn into tyranny, was lesser evil than political chaos.
Using the desire of society for strong government, royal power in Europe in the XIII-XV centuries. strengthened. To reassure the rebellious nobility, it strengthened the army and bureaucracy. For this, the necessary funds were received mainly from the introduction of new and increasing old Taxes.
XIII century. From the work of the medieval philosopher and theologian Thomas Aquinas “On the Rule of the Monarchs”
If you need to choose one of the two dangers, you should choose one that will bring less misfortune.
From the monarchy, however, if it turns into tyranny, less evil than from the rule of many nobles, if this rule is distorted…
If the board that is best seems most undesirable because of the danger of tyranny, and tyranny… most often arises from the government of many… it only remains to recognize that it is more beneficial to live under the monarch’s leadership than under the rule of many rulers.
Delaying the tax loop around the peasants and townspeople could cause insurgencies in the state. To prevent this from happening, the royal power turned to the nobility, the clergy and the merchants for the most influential social estates. For this, in a number of European countries in the XIII-XV centuries. The Consultative bodies of power were created, the members of which were representatives of these social classes. The peasants in them almost did not participate.
These state authorities were called differently in different countries: in England – by the parliament, in France – by the states general, in Spain – by the Cortes, in Germany – by the Reichstag,
in Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic – by the diet, in Russia – by the Duma. The leading role in them was played by representatives of the nobility and the clergy, while representatives of the city administrations were kept in third roles. In some countries, these authorities were firmly on their feet, convened regularly, at times they solved important state issues, and not always as the king wanted. But the king called them irregularly and imposed his decisions on them, often unacceptable. More often than not, the first representative authorities were an obedient tool in the hands of the monarch and helped to strengthen his power.
The advisory bodies of power are power structures whose decisions have no legislative force without their approval by the monarch.
Tax – state-imposed mandatory collection from the public, enterprises, organizations, etc.