1. Why is the Sudak fortress in Crimea called Genoese?
People built defensive structures from time immemorial, trying to protect their homes from conquerors. In the wooded area, the fortress was built of wood, in the mountain – made of stone. At the beginning of the history of Kievan Rus, foreign sources called it “country of hail”. However, not only the inhabitants of Russia built fortresses. The Crimean peninsula became a homeland for many peoples, and they, naturally, built fortifications for the defense of their cities. So, the fortress in the city of Sudak, on the southeast coast of the Crimean peninsula is unique. In the 6th century, when these lands were under the rule of Byzantium, the first fortifications were built here. Soon the city turned into one of the largest for those times international trade centers.
However, the real fortress, inscribed in the natural relief, with fourteen battle towers and walls was built in Sudak by Italians from
the city of Genoa, who owned the city in the 14th and 15th centuries. That is why this structure is still called the Genoese.
Between two lines of walls there was a city – streets with apartment houses, establishments, warehouses of the weapon and the foodstuffs, temples and taverns. Outside the fortress lay a suburb.
The fortress, or rather the surviving part of it, was perfectly preserved. Stamina of buildings is explained by the fact that the stones of the buildings were fastened with a special solution, which was notable for its elasticity, and therefore their walls could not be destroyed by earthquakes. It was destroyed by people, having stolen stone blocks as a building material for their needs.
2. What is the uniqueness of the Khan’s palace in Bakhchisaray?
The Crimean land is famous for one more attraction. This is the Khan’s Palace in Bakhchisaray. Khanami called the rulers of the Eastern peoples. The building in question was the family residence of the Gereev dynasty, the rulers of the Crimean Khanate, the state that existed on most of the Crimean peninsula in the 15th
and 18th centuries.
The ensemble of the palace embodies the Muslim idea of a garden of paradise on earth, so it is not surprising that the name of the city “Bakhchisaray” is translated from the Crimean Tatar as “palace-garden.” For two and a half centuries the Khan’s palace in Bakhchisaray was the center of political, spiritual and cultural life of the Crimean Tatars. For two and a half centuries, which the palace served as the residence of the Crimean khans, its external appearance underwent significant changes. Almost with each new ruler, new buildings appeared in the palace. Now the palace is a national shrine of the Crimean Tatars. This is the only example of the Crimean Tatar palace architecture in the world.
Muslims are supporters of the religion of Islam, one of the world’s religions.
The mosque is a place for prayer and worship, a prayer house for Muslims.
The minaret is a tower at the mosque, from which Muslims are invited to pray.