Written and oral forms of speech have different material basis: moving layers of air (sounds) – in oral speech and paint (letter) – in written speech. With this difference, the rich intonational possibilities of oral speech and the absence of those in written speech are associated.
Intonation is created by the melody of speech, the place of the logical stress, its strength, the degree of clarity of pronunciation, the presence or absence of pauses. Written speech is not able to convey all this. She only has punctuation marks, punctuation.
In oral speech, the linguistic means of conveying meaning is intonation, and in writing it is a derivative. In oral speech, there are no such means of written form as quotes, a capital letter, which can cause difficulties in hearing the text. Using a written form means the possibility of reorganization of the sentence, replacement of words, reference to dictionaries and directories.
The first two differences of the oral form unite it with the spoken speech aloud. The third difference characterizes the speech produced orally. Oral speech is divided into spoken and non-spoken. Conversational is divided into scientific, journalistic, business, artistic, non-colloquial – to public speech and non-public. Public speech is divided into mass and collective. This division coincides with division into monologic and dialogical speech.