The Cossack garrison was constantly on the Sich, the majority of the Zaporozhians lived in the winter huts, and came to Sich on the appropriate signal. After all, it was from Sich that the Cossacks went on a campaign. The Sich was also the place where the Cossacks discussed the most important questions of their life. Such meetings were called Rada – from the Ukrainian word radishisya. The Cossack Rada belonged to all power. Every Cossack enjoyed the right to vote on it. This way of organizing the life of society is called the Republic. That is why Zaporozhye Sich scientists are defined as a Cossack republic. Cossack was happy to make decisions about war and peace, military campaigns, accept foreign envoys or send Cossacks to other states, punish those guilty, etc. At the court, the
2. Why in the middle of the 17th century? flared up the National Liberation War? Who led it?
By 1569 almost all Ukrainian lands were under Polish rule. Tempered in the battles of the Cossacks, whose military assistance more than once helped the Polish king, hoped for concessions from the authorities. The king aspired to limit his rights. The oppression of the church, judicial proceedings, education, language was felt by the entire Ukrainian population. This could not but cause outrage and protests.
In the 30s of the 17th century. one after the other, the anti-Polish uprisings of the Cossacks began to break out. Despite the scope and support of the population, these speeches did not reach their goal: the Ukrainians continued to disenfranchise their own land in the future. Therefore, when in 1648 a new uprising began against the rule of Poland, it was supported not only by the peasants and the urban poor, but also by the clergy and wealthy philistinism. The uprising quickly turned into a nationwide war, which lasted ten years. Historians call this war the National Liberation Movement.
The National Liberation War was headed by Bogdan Khmelnitsky. The future hetman received an excellent education: he owned Ukrainian, Polish, Latin, Turkish and Tatar. Already in 1620 he fought against the Turks. Participated in the Cossack uprisings of the 30s of the 17th century. Since the mid-1940s, he was actively preparing an uprising against Poland.
3. Why is the National Liberation War under the leadership of Bogdan Khmelnitsky considered the most outstanding event of the Cossacks’ epoch?
The first battle of the National Liberation War took place in the tract of Yellow Waters. The Polish army in it was defeated. Further victorious Korsun and Pilyavets battles cemented the success of the Ukrainian army: at the beginning of November 1648, most of the Ukrainian lands were liberated from the Polish government.
Cossack orders were introduced on the liberated lands, which meant the approval of the Ukrainian Cossack state. This state was called the Zaporozhye Army. The supreme power in it belonged to the hetman, however the most important decisions were taken to the general military rada. To guide the state affairs the hetman was assisted by the general sergeant-general: clerk, obozny, two esaulov, two judges.
The territory of the Zaporozhye Army was divided into regiments and hundreds, led by colonels and centurions. The centers of the regiments and hundreds became large cities or towns. The territory of the state covered the lands of Chernigov, Poltava, Kiev region and Eastern Podillya. The capital of the Cossack state in the time of Khmelnytsky was Chigirin.
The Cossack state – Hetmanate, created as a result of the National Liberation War – lasted more than 100 years. In the 1760-1780 gg. Russian tsars liquidated the hetman, and Cossack regiments turned into regiments of the Russian army. In 1775 the last Zaporizhzhya Sich was also destroyed.