Estimate the author’s reasoning by which he begins a miniature: “Destiny draws attention to the powerful and powerful: for years she slavishly persuades her chosen one – Caesar, Alexander, Napoleon, for she loves nature spontaneous, like herself – an incomprehensible element.” What do you agree with and disagree with in this reasoning?
Many readers do not want to accept the author’s desire to make fate almost a living and real participant and judge of events.
This interpretation can hardly satisfy the realist reader. The overwhelming force of fate and fate is not accepted by most readers. More often in a dispute over this issue, opponents of the omnipotence of fate put forward as important evidence the importance of specific circumstances
The reasoning has a continuation that concerns ordinary people. Read carefully and agree or argue: “But sometimes – although in all ages only occasionally – she suddenly throws herself into the embrace of mediocrity by a strange whim, sometimes – and this is the most striking moment in world history – the thread of destiny falls into the hands of one trembling moment and these people usually do not experience joy, but fear of responsibility, which involves them in the heroics of the world game, and almost always they let out of the trembling hands of the fate that happened to them unaccountably. “
We see that this judgment is just as romantic and permeated with faith in the sovereignty of fate. In a man of the ordinary, the one whom Zweig calls mediocre, there is practically no chance of a major role in events, and he, as a rule, does not pretend to do this: other possibilities give rise to other requests. And the ability to really assess its scale requires from the average person no less courage than the same ability in a man of genius. For Zweig, only great people are important and before them he not only admires himself, but also with complete conviction forces him to bow his head and the very fate. For most people, such arrogance and arrogance are not inherent, and we respectfully look at the fate of any person.
What do you see in the composition of the historical miniature? Is it possible to consider that it is fully reflected in the names of the miniature headings? Try to justify your conclusion.
The novella chapters: “Pears”, “Night in Caius”, “Waterloo’s Morning”, “Pear’s Error”, “Decisive Moment in World History”, “Afternoon”, “Decoupling”, “Return to Everyday Life”. The composition of the novel is fully reflected in the names of the chapters that make it up and clearly emphasize its culmination: there can hardly be two decisive instants in one story. Evaluating the role of each of the tiny chapters of the novel, we see how the culmination is being prepared: information accumulated that is related to the Grusha, then collapsing with its error and leading to defeat. It is also natural that “Return to everyday life” is a kind of epilogue.
Carefully re-read the climax. Do you agree with the course of reasoning and conclusions of the author?
The author persistently convinces us that it was the second that Grushi decided to follow blindly Napoleon’s orders, predetermining the defeat at Waterloo. Pears did not come to the rescue, and the army of Napoleon was defeated. The author sees only such an explanation of events. Military history knows many works that evaluate this event, and it is not for us, readers without special training, to offer our solution. But it is also obvious that now military science has determined the many causes that gave birth to this event. And to us, readers who have certain views on the course of history, Zweig’s decision does not seem to be the only true one. The writer’s decision is very effective from the point of view of the brightness of the presentation of events, it is purely emotional, and most often we, after thinking about it, refuse it. The artistic text lives in this novel so intensely,
Try to give at least a brief description of one of the historical heroes depicted in the pages of this miniature.
Among the heroes that are depicted in the novel, the most complete is Grusha. The first chapter of the novel is dedicated to him, and in it – a clear description of this man. “Pears are ordinary people, but brave, zealous, honest, reliable, battle-tested chief of the cavalry, but no more than the chief of the cavalry… That Grushi is not a hero or a strategist, but only a reliable, faithful, brave and judicious commander, “Napoleon is well aware… For an instant, for one day, the humble Grushi leaves her place in the military hierarchy to enter the world history, only for one moment, but for a moment!” This is how we get to know Grusha. And in the chapter “Pear Bug” we learn how this error determined the defeat of Napoleon. And the description of this event is the completion of the story about the fate of Grusha as the hero of history.
How would you describe the main features of the work of Stefan Zweig, who noticed in this miniature or in other works you read? Give examples from the text.
The works of Stefan Zweig are distinguished by the dramatic nature of the narrative, the rapidity of the plot development, the tension of the characters’ image, the richness of the language, the romanticism and elation of the manner of narration. In the textbook-reader you read one of the novellas of the cycle “The Starry Hours of Mankind.” The very name of this cycle makes it possible to feel the writer’s attitude to history and its heroes. The author draws brightness, strength, unusualness, repels the grayness and routine. Even in the ordinary hero – Grushi – he finds a brief glimmer of glory.