On the basis of several good schools there were universities. The first universities appeared in the XII century. in Bologna and Paris. Later, universities also appeared in other countries: Oxford and Cambridge in England, Salamansky in Spain, Prague in the Czech Republic, Krakowski in Poland, etc. At the end of the 15th century, in Europe there were 79 universities. Most of them are active and at the present time, sacredly keeping their traditions.
Oxford and Cambridge are English universities, known since the XIII century.
The university had legal, administrative and financial independence, which was granted to him by special diplomas of the monarch or the Pope. Students of medieval universities were called Students. The University was divided into faculties.
The Art Department was supposed to be the starting point, which all students were supposed to finish. Here we studied the “seven liberal arts”. A graduate of the artistic faculty was given the
right to teach at school or continue his studies at one of the so-called higher faculties – legal, medical, theological. However, theological faculties did not work in all universities, and the training on them was the longest. For example, the training of a lawyer or doctor lasted 5-6 years, and the theologian-15.
1231. From the bull of Pope Gregory IX to the University of Paris
We recognize for you the right to issue decisions or orders concerning the methods and time for lecturing and conducting disputes, appearance, funerals, as well as orders regarding the time and subject of lectures of bachelors and rent for apartments. We also recognize for you the right to justly punish those who are excluded from your society from those who oppose these orders and orders.
And if it happens that you will be charged with the rent for the apartments, or… will any of you suffer insults or irreparable damages… then if within fifteen days of the submission of the relevant complaint there is no refund, you are allowed to suspend all classes at the university until you receive a refund… We
further prohibit from this time on to arrest a schoolboy for his debts…
Classes at the university were called Lectures, which were read by professors, and students listened and wrote down. Lectures were supplemented by disputes with disputes on the topic, which was determined in advance. Often the debates were so violently that they ended in a fight.
Naturally, the life of the schoolchildren was not easy, especially if they came from poor families. However, the young men knew how to have fun, to celebrate the most varied events of their life with a youthful zeal.
In 1257-1258 years. the confessor of the French King Robert de Sorbon opened a college that provided shelter to the 16 poorest students of the theological faculty of the University of Paris. Soon, thanks to donations, the college was expanded and began to accept students from wealthy families for an appropriate fee. The college not only provided an opportunity for living and food, but also became a place for conducting classes. In the XVII century. In honor of the founder of this college, the University of Paris began to be called the Sorbonne.
The most active among them were Vaganty – schoolboys who traveled from city to city to attend lectures of eminent professors or to earn for living. It was from their midst that many talented poets came out. Vagrants are considered the authors of the student anthem, which is now being performed at universities all over the world.
The universities had a great influence on the cultural life of the society. Their graduates could get used to profitable ecclesiastical or state positions. The best chances for career growth were legal education, but the masters of theology, medicine and teachers had no reason to complain about fate.
Vagant – in the Middle Ages so called wandering schoolboys, priests without parafies or runaway monks, earning a living by writing poems and songs.