Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov 1) development of a scientific classification of parts of speech and in the creation of the theory of “three calm”; 2) created the first scientific Russian grammar (“Russian Grammar”, 1757). In this work, the scientist defined the speech norms of his time and laid the foundations of stylistics. By establishing grammatical and orthoepic rules, Lomonosov proceeds from his own observation of living speech; 3) created a silobo-tonic system of versification.
Vostokov Alexander Kristoforovich is the creator of educational books on the Russian language, such as “Reduced Russian grammar for use in lower educational institutions” (1831), which was reprinted 15 times, and “Russian grammar more fully stated” (1831), reprinted 11 times. In “Russian grammar,” the scientist carried out a “search of the entire Russian language,” and considered its grammatical features at the level of science
of his time.
Potebnya Alexander Afanasievich the main work – “From notes on Russian grammar” in 4 volumes – is devoted to comparative analysis of the Ukrainian and Russian languages, the history of the basic grammatical categories, comparative study of the syntax of the East Slavic languages - Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian.
Shakhmatov Alexey Alexandrovich devoted more than two dozen works to the problem of the origin of the languages of the East Slavic group. In the last years of his life he read at St. Petersburg University a course in the syntax of the Russian language, from the manuscript materials of which, after the author’s death, the famous “Syntax of the Russian Language” was published. Many modern syntactic theories go to this work.
Scherba Lev Vladimirovich called for observations on living facts of language and speech, for reflection on them. His work “On parts of speech in the Russian language” (1928), in which he singled out a new part of speech – the words of the category of state, – clearly showed what grammatical
phenomena are hidden behind the familiar “noun” and “verb” for most of the terms. Shcherba is the founder of the Leningrad phonological school. He was one of the first to address the linguistic analysis of the language of works of art. His pen belongs to two experiences of the linguistic interpretation of Pushkin’s poem “Reminiscence” and Lermontov’s “Pine”.
Peshkovsky Alexander Matveyevich was the first in the history of Russian linguistics to show that intonation is a grammatical means that it helps where other grammatical means are unable to express meaning. One of the best works is “Russian Syntax in Scientific Lighting” (1914) – a witty and full of subtle observations monograph, in which the author seems to be conversing with his students. Together with them he observes, reflects, experiments, forcing the reader to become a conscious user of the Russian language.
Viktor Vladimirovich Vinogradov created two linguistic sciences: the history of the Russian literary language and the science of the language of fiction. His books “The Language of Pushkin”, “Gogol’s Language”, “Pushkin’s Style”, “The Style of Lermontov’s Prose” are of great interest both for the philologist specialist and for the entrant. Significant are the merits in the field of lexicology and phraseology. He created a classification of the types of lexical meaning of the word and the types of phraseological units that are used so far in universities. Many Vinogradov is known as the creator and editor-in-chief of the journal Questions of Linguistics, as president of the International Association of Teachers of the Russian Language and Literature. He created more than 250 works.
Reformatsky Alexander Alexandrov created a textbook “Introduction to Linguistics.” His works are devoted to various problems of language: phonetics, word formation, vocabulary, writing theory, the history of linguistics, the relationship of language and speech. Together with other outstanding linguists – Kuznetsov, Sidorov and Avanesov – Reformatsky was the founder of the Moscow phonological school, whose ideas are being developed today.