The folk art of the word – heroic epic, fairy tales, myths, legends, songs, proverbs, riddles – is called folklore, which means wisdom, knowledge. Indeed, in all these literary genres, the wisdom of the people is simple, concise and clear. Originated in ancient times, works of oral folk art accompany us now, in everyday life. Folk songs, fairy tales, riddles and proverbs are known to both children and adults.
Myths are a kind of folklore, old folk tales about gods, fantastic creatures, heroes, demigods, miracles, conveying the representations of ancient peoples about the origin of the world and the phenomena of nature.
The legends of the ancient Greeks – myths, which also belong to folk art, are especially rich and diverse in artistic fantasy.
In the imagination of the ancient Greeks, the gods inhabited not only the earth, but also air, water and even the underworld. Ancient Greek myths not only talked about the lives of gods and titans, but also glorified the names of the most worthy people who bravely fought for justice, freedom and honor. Gods are perfect people: with tremendous physical strength, amazingly beautiful and immortal, able to perform miraculous and inexplicable from the point of view of ordinary people actions. Here is the man who brought fire to people – Prometheus. Here is a man of extraordinary strength who just realized another feat, overcoming a terrible hydra – this is Hercules. But a handsome young man.
If fairy tales are fictional stories invented for a specific purpose, then myths are real, realistic representations of people about the world around them. In all of what is said in myths, our distant ancestors believed faithfully, hence the deification of all living things, the worship of the gods. Myths are older than fairy tales. People’s beliefs, their initial knowledge about the world around them, about life, as well as religion, science and art are connected in them.
All of us in early childhood listened to the stories that mothers and grandmothers told us. Fairy tales have appeared for a very long time and for many centuries played the same important role in the life of a person as books are now playing. Fairy tales are a large section of ancient literature, folklore narrative works about fictional faces and events, mainly with the participation of magical, fantastic forces. In fairy tales often operate animals, endowed with human characters. Fairy tales are full of life and humor, they ridicule the greed, cowardice and deceit of the rich and praise the diligence, generosity and truthfulness of the common people.
Fairy tales are very diverse: these are fairy tales about animals, and instructive short tales of lazy, stubborn or stupid people – social and magical tales – entertaining magical narratives about the wonderful adventures of heroes. Each type of fairy tales has a special content, images, style.
Tales of animals arose in ancient times. In many peoples, they are similar in nature, content, in them – traces of primitive beliefs and representations of man. Now Russian fairy tales about animals are often perceived as allegorical stories about people: images of animals hide images of people. A sly fox, a cowardly hare, a stupid and greedy wolf are the constant heroes of fairy tales.
Magic fairytales are also very ancient, they, in my opinion, are the most interesting. Their action can take place in a wonderful distant kingdom, the thirtieth state, the heroes in these tales have magical qualities-they fly on carpets-planes, walk in short boots, hide under an invisible cap and miraculously create unusual palaces and cities for one night.
The Russian people created a lot of satirical (social-everyday) tales about stupid, angry or stubborn people, about cruel bars and greedy gays, ridiculing their negative qualities.