Lermontov was in love with the Caucasus since his earliest childhood. The majesty of the mountains, the crystal clearness and at the same time the dangerous force of the rivers, the bright unusual greenery and people, freedom-loving and proud, shocked the imagination of a large-eyed and impressionable child. Perhaps that is why Lermontov was so attracted to the image of a rebel when he died pronouncing an angry speech before a senior monk (the poem “Confession”), or perhaps it was a premonition of his own death and a subconscious protest against the monastic prohibition to rejoice in everything that is given by God in This acute desire to experience the ordinary human happiness and sounds in the deathbed confession of young Mtsyri – the hero of one of the most remarkable
The poem was written by M. Yu. Lermontov in 1839. In the poem, the main character is the closest to modernity. The fate of a mountaineer, striving for freedom from captivity, who did not receive it, was the most consonant with the Lermontov generation. At the same time, the heroic pathos of uncompromising struggle, encouraging Mtsyri to the end of his short life, was the most direct reflection of Lermontov’s ideal.
. Contrary to the seeming monologue of the poem, in which there exists the confession of her only hero, the poem is internally dialogical, which expands its semantic spectrum.
The years of Mtsyri’s stay in the monastery, forcible admission to civilization were saturated not only with the bitterness of losses, but also with well-known acquisitions. The unusual nature of his position and fate makes Mtsyri think about problems that were not peculiar to him. Along with the dreams of freedom and homeland in Mtsyri, the desire to know the world around us arises. The thoughts of the hero testify to his deep feelings, about the formation of self-consciousness, which brings the hero out of natural immediacy:
Long time ago I thought I’d
look at the far fields.
To find out whether the earth is beautiful,
To learn, for the will or prison.
Mtsyri lives in nature and. in harmony with nature. But nature, which was for the hero previously beautiful, a place of free stay, suddenly becomes unfriendly and even hostile:
In vain furious at times
I tore a desperate hand
bramble, ivy confused:
. All the forest was, the eternal forest around,
Stranger and thicker every hour;
And a million black eyes
Looked night darkness
Through the branches of each bush.
In the poem, Lermontov develops the idea of courage and protest laid down earlier in other works. But in this poem the author almost excludes the love motive, which played a significant role before. This motif was reflected in the brief meeting of Mtsyri with the Georgian at the mountain stream. The hero, defeating the involuntary impulse of a young heart, renounces personal happiness in the name of freedom. The patriotic idea is combined in the poem with the theme of freedom. Lermontov does not share these concepts. In one passion, his love for the fatherland and desire for will merge.
The monastery becomes a prison for Mtsyri, the cells seem stifling to him, gloomy and deaf – walls, cowardly and pathetic – guardians-monks, he himself feels like a slave and prisoner. His desire to learn much about the world, for which he was born into the world, is due to a passionate impulse towards freedom. Only outside the monastery Mtsyri lived, only outside the monastery he was free. Only these days he calls bliss.
The courage and fortitude of the Mtsyri appear in his battle with the leopard. He was not afraid of death, because he knew that returning to the monastery was a continuation of the previous sufferings. The tragic ending does not weaken his spirit, the power of his freedom. The exhortations of the old monk do not make him repent. He would now trade heavenly pleasure for several minutes of freedom, for a few minutes of life among his relatives.
Defeated, he is not spiritually broken and remains a positive image of our literature, and his courage and heroism, strength of spirit and integrity were a reproach to the shattered hearts of fearful and inactive contemporaries.
Poem Lermontov continues the tradition of advanced romanticism. Mtsyri, full of fiery passions, gloomy and lonely, revealing his soul in the confessional story, is perceived as the hero of romantic poems. However, Lermontov, who created the “Mtsyri” in those years when the realistic novel “The Hero of Our Time” was created, introduces such features into this work, which are not found in his earlier poems. If the past of the heroes of “Confessions” and “Boyar Orsha” remains completely unknown and we do not know the social conditions that shaped their characters, the lines about the unhappy childhood and adolescence of Mtsyri help to better understand the feelings and thoughts of the hero. The very form of confession, characteristic of romantic poems, is associated with the desire to reveal more deeply – to tell the soul. This psychologism of the work,
An expressive combination of many metaphors of a romantic character in the confessional itself (images of fire and flames) with a realistically accurate and poetically stingy speech of entry (“Once a Russian General.”) A romantic poem testified to the growth of realistic tendencies in Lermontov’s work
Lermontov entered the Russian literature as a continuer of the traditions of the great Pushkin, the Decembrist poets and at the same time as a new link in the development of national culture. “According to Belinsky, he introduced his own culture into the national culture,” Lermont vsky element “. Compressedly explaining that it is necessary to invest in this definition, the critic noted the “original living thought” in his poems as the first characteristic feature of the poet’s creative legacy, and repeated: “Everything in them breathes an original and creative thought.”
In the image of Mtsyri Lermontov reflected the real features of the best people of the era of the 30s of the XIX century, tried to force his contemporaries to abandon passivity, apathy, indifference, glorified the inner freedom of man.