What noble spirit is to submit to the
Sling and the arrows of a furious fate?
Or, when they fight against the sea of troubles, fight them with
The tragedy of Shakespeare, and especially the image of Hamlet, always evoked contradictory responses. The German poet W. Goethe attributed the tragedy of the hero to the impossibility of the tasks that he set for himself and could not solve them. The nineteenth-century Russian critic V. Belinsky wrote that weakness of will is a surmountable state, and Hamlet is a fighter against the mores of the depraved and despotic royal court. I. Turgenev also reduced the content of the Shakespearean image to stale egoism, indifference, contempt for the crowd. And modern literary critics believe
I agree with those who claim that the image of Hamlet reflects the conflict between the individual and society, between good and evil. Between the last two concepts there is a constant confrontation. At all times and in any society, a person had to choose between good and evil, choose his own way in life, look for answers to questions: how to live? In the name of what to live? Where is the path that allows you to respect yourself? What is good and what is evil?
The behavior, actions of Hamlet, his reflections – the search for answers to these questions. His reflections on the meaning of life and doubts about the correctness of the chosen actions were reflected primarily in monologues, especially in the monologue of the third act “To Be or Not to Be?” In response to this question, the essence of the tragedy of Hamlet – the tragedy of a person who came to this world too early and saw all its imperfections was revealed. This is the tragedy of the mind. The mind, which solves for itself the main problem: whether to fight with the sea of evil or to escape from the struggle? Rise “on the sea of Troubles” and defeat them or submit to
Hamlet understands that fate intended him to restore justice in the Danish kingdom, but he did not dare to join the fight for a long time. He understands that there is only way to defeat evil – to use the same evil. But this way can distort the most noble goal. He does not want to live by the principle that my contemporaries often preach, “to achieve the goal, all means are good.” Therefore, there is an idea about the third way: “to fall asleep and die – and all…” Death is one of the possible consequences of internal struggle. It will break “the chain of heartaches and thousands of hardships inherent in the body.” And in this case, death is the deliverance from earthly troubles and misfortunes, death is like a dream in the total absence of consciousness. But Hamlet is concerned about “the uncertainty after death, the fear of a country from which no one came back.” And so, probably, he can not “give himself a calculation with a simple dagger,” that is, commit suicide. Hamlet is aware of his powerlessness, but can not part with life, for it is his task to avenge his father, restore the truth, and punish evil.
The decision is almost accepted: “Calculation with a dagger” he must produce, but not on himself. However, such a decision requires Hamlet to act. But meditation and doubt paralyze his will. The hero realizes that the excess of thought weakens his ability to act: “So all of us in cowards turn the thought, and wither, like a flower, our determination in the sterility of a mental impasse.” So plans perish… from long delays. ” Hamlet thinks for a long time before acting. He is overcome by doubts, spiritual contradictions, he feels a great responsibility for his actions. It is difficult for Hamlet to resign himself to the fact that the real life was much more complicated than his ideas about it.
And yet Hamlet decides to go to the end. The choice is made – “to be!” To struggle with evil, with hypocrisy, with deception, with betrayal. Hamlet dies, but before he dies he thinks about life, about the future of his kingdom.
Monologue “To be or not to be?” reveals to us the soul of the hero, who is unreasonably hard in the world of lies, evil, deceit, villainy, but who, nevertheless, has not lost the ability to act. Therefore this monologue is really the highest point of Hamlet’s reflections and doubts.
In the life of every person there are times when you have to make a decision, make a choice. And in this case it is important to understand your own responsibility for the course of events, take an active position and act. And it should be remembered that not “any means are good,” which means that you must remain a worthy person in the most difficult life situations. This is how I understand the meaning of Hamlet’s monologue for modern man.