The pronoun differs from other parts of speech in that it does not have its constant and persistent lexical meaning; its value is variable and depends on the meaning of the word to which it indicates or instead of which it is used. Therefore, a pronoun can be defined as part of a speech that conveys a general reference to objects and attributes, but does not name them. In this sense, a pronoun is defined as a part of speech, serving instead of a noun, an adjective or a numeral.
In most authors, the grammatical features of pronouns are:
Ø. permanent – discharge, person (personal);
Ø. non-permanent – case, gender, number (if any);
Ø. syntactic role.
To the category of pronouns in the “Course of the Modern Russian Literary Language”
Personal: I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they. Possessive: my, our, your, your, them, him, her (in the meaning of possessive), your own. Return pronouns: yourself, me, you. Interrogative pronouns: who, what, what, whose, which, what, how many. Relative: who, what, what, whose, which, what, how much (used to link simple sentences into one complex). Uncertain: somebody, something, some, several, some, somebody, somebody, somebody, somebody, some, some, some, some, some, some, some, some. Negative: no one, nothing, no one, no one, no one, nothing. Indicative: the one, this, such, such, is, so much.
Definitive: all, everyone, everyone, himself, most, any, other, other.
The correct use of pronouns in speech is important, for this it is necessary to know the morphological norms. Below, we will consider the rules for the use of pronouns at different ranks, as well as situations of violation of morphological norms. The pronoun 3 person (he, she, it) usually replaces the nearest noun in the form of the same kind and number. Sometimes this connection of the pronoun with the noun is determined by the meaning, and not by the order of words, for example: Marya Ivanovna was equipped, and in a few days she set out on the road with the faithful Palasha and with
Sometimes the incorrect correlation of the pronoun with different words is a source of ambiguity or ambiguity, for example: Changes have been made to both texts; they need some refinements. It is unclear whether the texts or additions need clarification. Correctly construct the sentence as follows: Additions have been made to both texts, which need some refinement.
A pronoun should not be related to collective numerals having the singular form. Incorrect: Many people took part in the strike; they demanded a salary increase. The correct variant will be: Many miners took part in the strike; they demanded a salary increase
Skipping the personal pronoun 1 and 2 of the person in the role of subject with the verb-verb indicates a certain person, gives speech dynamics, accelerates its tempo, introduces a colloquial tone. Compare: I do not agree! I can not! Do not agree! I can not! In such constructions the categorical emphasis is sometimes emphasized: Go, obey the order! (K. Simonov)
The presence of the subject-pronoun in the form of imperative mood can give a softening tone to the statement, for example: You tell me frankly… you give me advice. (L. Tolstoy)
The personal pronoun sometimes duplicates the subject-noun in the sentence. Such use of the pronoun is justified in speech and poetic speech: The whole face of Georgia is beloved, he became another in consciousness to live. (N. Tikhonov)
In other cases, such a phenomenon is observed in the colloquial language, vernacular, which is not a literary norm. One often hears hearing radio and television announcers admit language negligence, for example: State Duma deputies, they passed the law in the third reading. Our national park “Curonian Spit” … it requires the constant attention of scientists and ordinary workers. Eugene Onegin. he was introduced to noble youth. Or another example from Prime Minister Mikhail Kasyan’s recent speech to journalists: “The relevant services, of course, they will sort out…”
Normative is the form of the pronoun in her, for example: She has an unusually charming voice. The form she gives to the saying of a conversational nature: She was shedding tears… (K. Fedin)
Archaic or vernacular character is inherent in forms: without it, for it, from it, etc. For example: I tried to get rid of it.
In modern language, the “H” sound is added to the pronouns of 3 persons, if the pronoun stands after any of the simple prepositions: without, in, for, before, after, from, to, over, about, from, to, before, pro, c, y, through, and also after many adverbial prepositions, ie, passed from adverbs: near, around, in front, past, on the contrary, about, after, in the middle, behind. It’s right to use pronouns like this: in front of her, with her, near her, at them, around him, opposite them. However, you often hear: she does not have anything, stood near them. It is not right. However, such pretexts as inside, outside are used, usually without inserting the initial “H”.
The “H” is not added to the pronouns after the prepositions of adverbial origin, governed by the dative case: in spite of him, contrary to it, according to them, following him, towards her, like them, according to them, and also thanks to him.
Do not require the bid “H” also offer combinations consisting of a simple preposition and the noun, for example: with respect to him, with the help of her, not as an example to them, as opposed to him, about her, except for them, from his side, because of her, like him, about them.
The initial “H” is not added to the pronouns, if the pronoun stands after the comparative degree of the adjective or adverb: it is older than it, higher than it, better than them.
If the personal pronoun is preceded by the definitive pronoun all, then both forms are permissible: for all of them, for all of them, for all of them for all of them, for all of them for all of them, for all of them over all of them.
The personal pronoun is used to express courtesy. In official papers, you should write with a capital letter. Sometimes it is wrong to use this pronoun, referring to one person. For example: You are so demanding… (meaning a woman or a man). It is necessary to say: “You are so demanding,” “You are so demanding.”
When using a pronoun, you should avoid mistakes of this type: “Are you family?” The plural of the adjective here is vulgar, the same vulgarism is the use of the verb in the singular, for example: you said… you bought… “(5, 360 ). The verb should be consistent with the pronoun in the number. Speaking of the pronoun, you want to quote a poem by Alexander Pushkin:
You and You Empty you are heartfelt You, supplanted, replaced, And all happy dreams In the soul of a lover excited. I stand before her thoughtfully, I tell her: “How nice you are!” And I think: “How I love you!”
From the poem you can see how the use of the pronoun removes deliberately
Emphasized plaque of officialdom.
The return pronoun itself can refer to the key of three grammatical persons. If there are several nouns or pronouns in the sentence, to which the pronoun itself can refer, then often there is ambiguity, for example: The commandant ordered the janitor to take the things of the tenant to himself. It is not clear to whom to relate – to the commandant or to the janitor. In this case, according to D. E. Rosenthal, the pronoun should be attributed to the word that calls the producer of the action, that is, to the janitor (refer)