How there is a change of seasons

Why there is a change of seasons?

How boring it would be to live if the young and tender spring did not come to replace the frosty winter, it would not be replaced by summer with holidays and fresh fruits and vegetables, and velvet autumn is generally loved by many people for its calm and beauty. We accept all seasons, we rejoice over them, and we rarely think about why the seasons change. This, it turns out, is a complex natural phenomenon based on the location of the planets – the Sun and the Earth.

The annual circle of the Earth

If we talk about the change of day and night, then it is much easier to understand here. The Earth turned to the Sun by your city, you have a day, turned away, look you into the dark space – you have a night. Earth turns around its axis in 24 hours. The reason for the change of seasons is that, in addition to this rotation, the Earth makes a circular path around the Sun. It passes this circle for 365 days and 6 hours, this

time period is called the year. For 4 years, accumulates 4 times for 6 hours, and a leap year appears in the calendar, in which 366 days.

How there is a change of seasons

The thing is that the Earth is not directly in the Sun’s orbit, but under an inclination, the Earth’s axis and the Sun’s orbit form an angle of 23 degrees 27 minutes. And it turns out, then one hemisphere is always closer to the Sun, and the second is further. Therefore, one summer, and the second winter. It should be noted that in order for summer to come, it is necessary that the rays of the Sun hit the Earth at right angles. When the Earth turns to the Sun at an inclination along the tangent, it turns out that the distance to the southern and northern hemispheres is the same, then spring and autumn come. In a year there are two days, when the day is equal to the night, and in the northern and southern hemisphere these parts of the day are compared. This occurs around September 23 and March 21. The equator is always summer, because the distance to the sun does not change here, the rays are always straight, they provide

heat. There are places, where there is always winter for the same reason. The sun’s rays very rarely fall on the poles of the Earth at right angles, only on the tangent. And, as we know, gliding rays of the ice can not melt, they only illuminate the Earth. Only one thing remains stable: the slope of the Earth’s axis, it is always directed at the North Star, which always points to the north.

Model of the Earth and the Sun

To better understand how the seasons change, you can independently make a model of the Earth and the Sun. Take the table lamp and put it in the center of the table. Now take the old ball, pierce it with a regular knitting needle in the center. So we clearly marked the axis of the Earth. Tilt the axle about 23-25 ​​degrees, do not yank and do not change the direction of the axis. A more illuminated half of the balloon from above? So it’s summer there. Now rotate the ball, move it 90 degrees. Half, previously bright, became illuminated on a par with the second half. Consequently, autumn came here. Now move another 90 degrees, our half of the ball has become darkened. It is now winter, the lamp’s rays fall on it only in passing. Through the next 90 degrees our half will be lit a little brighter, and, having returned to the previous position, it will again become the brightest. It’s been a whole year!

The root cause of all

So the surrounding world is arranged, the change of the seasons is the ingenious invention of nature, the Universe. It is she who provides equilibrium in space, forces not only to change the seasons, but also to circulate water on the planet, to erupt volcanoes, to move currents in the ocean. Everything on Earth is due precisely to this, namely, to the forces providing interaction between the planets, and in our case between the Earth and the Sun.

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How there is a change of seasons