Features of the organic world of the continent. The diversity of the natural conditions of South America determines the species richness of plants and animals, and the remoteness from other continents is their originality. Since in the past geological era, South America was part of the single continent of Gondwana, some plant forks are similar to plants of other tropical continents – tree ferns, palm trees, acacias. But after the splits of Gondwana, South America was long isolated from other continents. Therefore, here there were species of plants and animals that do not occur in other parts of the world.
Change of natural complexes by man. Active economic activity in South America began with the XVI century. After the colonization of the continent by Europeans. Especially it intensified in the XIX-XX centuries, when young independent states began to develop their economies. The greatest environmental problem in our time is the destruction of the Amazonian forests, the plowing of savannas and pampas, etc. All this has led to an impoverishment of vegetation and fauna, soil erosion and other negative phenomena.
Concerned about this, the governments of many states have developed a program of measures for the protection of nature. In many natural complexes, reserves, national parks and other nature conservation areas were established. Currently, the area of protected areas in South America is about 1%.