1. How historically has the profitable transport and geographical position of the region changed? Does the value of this or that mode of transport change over time?
The area at all times was characterized by exceptionally favorable economic and geographical location. The Volga region, like the Volga-Vyatka region, borders on four other economic regions, that is, it is in the center of Russia. In the south the region goes to the Caspian Sea, which allows it to communicate with Turkmenistan, Iran and Azerbaijan via its southern ports.
Now it is characterized by an exceptionally well-developed, ramified transport network, which creates favorable conditions for active economic interaction with neighbors. The basis of the transport network is r. The Volga, the parallel railway Sviyazhsk – Ulyanovsk – Syzran – Ilovlya and the highway: Moscow – Kazan – Ekaterinburg, Moscow – Samara – Chelyabinsk, Rtishchevo – Saratov – Uralsk, Inza – Ulyanovsk – Ufa.
The great Russian Volga River in the Middle Ages was almost the only transport artery.
Now, despite the creation of the deep Volga system, which connects the region with the Baltic, White, Azov and Black Seas, river transport still has a subordinate significance. Most of the cargo is transported by rail. Road transport is very important for transportation within the district. In the second half of XX century. great development was given to pipeline
2. What natural areas could you single out in the Volga region? Answer the argument.
In natural terms, the Volga divides the region into an elevated Right Bank and a relatively low Left Bank. Since the region is extended in the meridional direction, latitudinal zonation is clearly discernible here.
3. How did the meridional configuration of the district affect the specialization of agriculture?
The map of the prevailing landscapes shows how mixed, followed by broad-leaved forests, forest-steppes and steppes, semi-deserts and deserts, follow each other in the meridional direction down the Volga. And although now most of the landscapes along the Volga have a forest-like appearance, differences in the specialization of farms are given by natural zones hidden by the anthropogenic impact. Following them, agricultural areas alternate: dairy and beef cattle and grain crops – this is the specialization of the northernmost regions of the Penza and Ulyanovsk regions and Tatarstan. Slightly south of the cultivation of cereals is combined with meat and dairy cattle and pig production. In the Saratov region, sunflower cultivation is added, in the Trans-Volga region among the crops there is thermophilic and drought-resistant millet, livestock begins to focus on the cultivation of sheep.
4. Recall the peculiarities of growing winter and spring wheat. How are the areas of cultivation of these crops associated with climatic differences in the Volga region?
Winter wheat is sown in autumn, and in the early spring successfully overcracked sprouts are rapidly developing. This significantly reduces the tension of spring sowing and harvesting, in addition, winter crops are more productive than the corresponding spring crops. However, during the winter, the fields should be covered with a stable and sufficiently powerful snow cover, which is not observed in areas with a continental climate.
In Russia the river. The Volga is a boundary dividing the areas of growing winter and spring wheat: up to the Volga on the right bank, winter wheat is mainly grown, in the Transvolga region with a drier climate and unstable snow cover – spring wheat.
5. Name and briefly describe the features and monuments of nature that are characteristic only of the Volga region?
Samara Luke is an arc-shaped bend of the Volga, enveloping the Zhiguli mountains from the east. In the Samara area, the Volzhskaya HPP.
Zhiguli – the mountains on the right bank of the Volga, enveloped by its bend. Height up to 375 m. On the northern slopes there are broadleaf and pine forests, on the southern – forest-steppe. Reserve. Tourism is developing. In the Zhiguli area – Volzhskaya HPP.