The role of the European North in the development of Russian culture

1. For different sources of information, identify the centers of art crafts.

Vologda lace, as you might guess, is made in Vologda. Such artistic crafts as bone carving and birch bark work use local material: walrus tusks and the outer part of birch bark. In the old days they wrote on birch bark as on paper. Since 1951, over 800 birchbark certificates have been discovered, most of all in Veliky Novgorod. The greatest development of these fisheries was in the cities of Naryan-Mar and Veliky Ustyug.

2. Think whether the natural conditions of the region could have affected the characteristics of the national crafts, where they arose and developed.

In folk crafts, local natural materials are used most often, then, unlike the surrounding territories, the land is rich. For example, bone carving could only have been born on the shores of the Arctic Ocean by courageous sea hunters in walruses. And in the fragments depicted in Figure 98, the life of the Nenets is vividly represented

– the deer in sledge harnesses and the moments of hunting for walruses. The thickness of walrus skin reaches 3-4 cm, and only a very strong person can pierce it with a spear. At the beginning of the century predatory fishing put walruses on the brink of extinction and they were listed in the Red Book of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, and their fishing is prohibited. But for the Nenets and some other peoples of the North, limited extraction is allowed, which now supports the ancient craft of bone carving.

Beresta – a material widely distributed throughout the forest zone, is used by many Russian craftsmen to make boxes, baskets, elegant caskets and kitchen utensils.

3. Tell us about the peculiarities of historical and cultural monuments of the European North. What natural and historical factors determined their development? Give a geographical description of one of the natural or cultural monuments of the North on the basis of various sources of information.

There is in 215 km to the northwest from Vologda a small town of Tot’ma,

a pier on the river. Sukhona. Now there are about 10 thousand people living here, and it’s hard to believe that this town is older than Moscow – it is known since 1137. Totma lay on the trade route from Moscow to Arkhangelsk and quickly developed in the 16th-17th centuries, when the main trade with Europe was going on through the White Sea. In the XVIII century. there were built many churches in the Baroque style, four of them have survived to this day – the church of John the Baptist, Christmas,

Troitskaya, Maksimovskaya. Look at the map – the railways bypassed this town, and it did not receive industrial development. But the houses, felled in Totma, are in many suburban holiday villages.

On the railroad running from the Vorkuta highway leading to Labytnangi, on the border of the Komi Republic and the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District, there is an unusual monument – a pillar marking the border of Europe and Asia. Approximately at 67 ° with. w. the road crosses the Polar Urals. Here, at the 99th km of the Polar Urals-Ob distillation, and there is a border post between parts of the world. In 2004, the sign was 50 years old, and it was decided to restore it.

4. Make a tourist route in Karelia, Murmansk, Arkhangelsk or Vologda region. What kind of tourism is preferable here? At what time of the year?

For tourist routes in the European North, besides traditional buses and railway trains, kayaks and boats are also characteristic. Only by boat you can get now to the Solovetsky Islands, Valaam, Kizhi. The best time to travel across the North is the end of summer. Although the birthplace of Father Frost, Veliky Ustyug, is usually visited by the New Year.

5. Suggest a variant of the northern “Golden Ring” of tourist routes by analogy with Central Russia. What objects do you include in it? What is their uniqueness? Which transport is more expedient to use? How did the roads run to the places you chose in the distant past? What types of transport would you prefer to recreate images of the historical past and a more complete emotional perception of cultural monuments?

Perhaps the most colorful would be a route along the Nenets Autonomous District on reindeer sleds or the White Sea on the eve of the bush. Koch – the main means of transportation of Siberian pioneers in the XVI-XVII centuries. This is a marine wooden one-deck single-masted sailing-rowing vessel with a small draft.

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The role of the European North in the development of Russian culture