In the epic kind of literature (others – epos – word, speech), the organizer of the work is the narration about the characters (actors), their fates, deeds, moods, events in their life that make up the storyline. This – a chain of verbal messages, or, more simply, a story about what happened before. The narrative is characterized by a temporary distance between the conduct of speech and the subject of verbal designations.
An epic work can “absorb” into itself such a number of characters, circumstances, events, fates, details that are inaccessible to other kinds of literature, or to any other kind of art.
Epic work, has no limitations in its scope. According to VE Khalizev, “Epos as a genre of literature includes both short stories (…),
A significant role for epic genres is the image of the narrator (narrator), who tells about the events themselves, about the characters, but at the same time delimits oneself from what is happening. The epos, in turn, reproduces, captures not only the narrator, but also the narrator (his manner of speaking, the mindset).
An epic work can use almost any artistic medium known to literature. The narrative form of the epic work “contributes to the deepest penetration into the inner world of man.”
Until the XVIII century, the leading genre of epic literature – an epic poem. The source of her story is folk tradition, the images are idealized and generalized, the speech reflects a relatively monolithic folk consciousness, a poem form (Iliad of Homer). In the XVIII-XIX centuries. the novel becomes the leading genre. Plots are borrowed mainly from the present, images are individualized, speech reflects a sharply differentiated multilingual public consciousness, a prosaic form.
Lyrics – one of the three main types of literature, highlighting the subjective image of reality: individual states, thoughts, feelings, impressions of the author, caused by various circumstances, impressions. In the lyrics, life is reflected
In the lyrics (dr.- lyra – musical instrument, to which the verses were played), in the foreground are single states of human consciousness1: emotionally colored reflections, volitional impulses, impressions, non-rational sensations and aspirations. If in the lyrical work and denotes any event series (which is not always the case), then very sparingly
The lyrics are by no means confined to the sphere of people’s inner life, their psychology as such. She is invariably attracted by emotional states that mark the person’s focus on external reality. Therefore, lyrical poetry turns out to be an artistic assimilation of states not only of consciousness (which, as Pospelov insistently says, is primary, main, dominant, but also of being.) Such are philosophical, landscape and civil poems.
Speech expression in the lyrical genus of poetry is often brought to a maximum. Such a number of bold and unexpected allegories
Elegy is a lyric genre: a poem of meditative (from Latin meditatio – in-depth meditation) or emotional content that conveys deeply personal, intimate experiences of a person, usually imbued with moods of sadness, light sadness. Most often it is written in the first person. The most common themes of elegies are contemplation of nature, accompanied by philosophical reflections, love, as a rule, unrequited, life and death, etc. This genre, which arose in the ancient epoch, was most popular in the poetry of sentimentalism and romanticism, the elegies of VA Zhukovsky, KN Batyushkov, AA Pushkin, EA Baratynsky, NM Yazykov.
The epistle is a poetic genre: a poetic letter, a work written in the form of an appeal to someone and containing appeals, requests, wishes, etc. (“To Chaadayev”
Poem-lyric-epic genre: a large or average poem in volume (a poetic novel, a novel in verse), the main features of which are the presence of the plot (as in the epic) and the image of the lyric hero (as in the lyrics)
The ballad is a genre of lyric-epic poetry: a narrative song or a poem of relatively small volume, with a dynamic development of the plot, the basis of which is an extraordinary case. Often in the ballad there is an element of mysterious, fantastic, inexplicable, undecided, even tragically insoluble. By origin, the ballads are associated with legends, folk legends, combine the features of the story and the song. Ballads – one of the main genres in the poetry of sentimentalism and romanticism. For example: ballads VA Zhukovsky, M. Yu. Lermontov.
Essays. Here the attention of the authors is focused on external reality, which gives literary scholars some reason to put them in a series of epic genres. However, in the essays, the event series and the actual narrative of the organizing role do not play: descriptions dominate, often accompanied by reasoning. Such are “The Chorus and Kalinich” from Turgenev’s “Hunter’s Notes
The literature of the “stream of consciousness”, where the narrative presentation of events prevails, and the endless chains of impressions, memories, spiritual movements of the speaker of speech. Here the consciousness, most often appearing disorderly, chaotic, as it were, appropriates and absorbs the world: reality turns out to be “covered” by the chaos of its contemplation, the world placed in consciousness. Properties of M. Proust, J. Joyce, and Andrei Bely have similar properties. Later representatives of the “new novel” in France (M. Büthor, N. Sarrot) addressed this form.
Essays. free-free combination of summarizing messages about single facts, descriptions of reality and (most importantly) reflections on it. Thoughts expressed in the essayist form, as a rule, do not pretend to an exhaustive interpretation of the subject, they admit the possibility of entirely different judgments.