Because of the considerable length from north to south, North America is located in all climatic zones of the northern hemisphere, except equatorial.
In the arctic climatic zone throughout the year, the cold and dry Arctic air prevails. Here the harsh winters and cold summers. In winter, a polar night reigns. The annual amount of precipitation does not exceed 100 mm.
In the subarctic belt, winter under the influence of the Arctic air is long, cold and not very snowy. The summer is cool and rainy, due to the arrival of moderate air masses. The average air temperature is +8 … + 12 ° С.
Within the temperate climatic zone, three climatic regions are distinguished. On the Pacific coast, which for a year has been affected by western winds from the ocean, a maritime
In the subtropical climatic zone, three regions are also distinguished. In the western part of the belt formed the Mediterranean region with a wet and warm winter and dry and hot summer. In the east – a monsoon region, similar to a similar region of the temperate zone, only with higher air temperatures. In the center of the continent is the continental region. Precipitation throughout the year is small, the annual amplitude of temperature fluctuations are large.
In the tropical belt, two regions are distinguished. In the east, under the influence of the moist north-east trade wind, a marine area with uniform considerable moisture was formed during the year. The air temperature here rarely falls below + 20 ° C. The annual rainfall exceeds
A small area in the extreme south of the continent lies in the subequatorial belt. Climatic conditions in much of North America are favorable for the cultivation of a variety of crops: in the temperate zone – wheat, corn; in subtropical – rice, cotton, citrus; in tropical coffee, sugar cane, bananas. In the tropical belt, two to three crops are harvested per year.