Climatic zones of North America

Climatic zones of North America

Because of the considerable length from north to south, North America is located in all climatic zones of the northern hemisphere, except equatorial.

In the arctic climatic zone throughout the year, the cold and dry Arctic air prevails. Here the harsh winters and cold summers. In winter, a polar night reigns. The annual amount of precipitation does not exceed 100 mm.

In the subarctic belt, winter under the influence of the Arctic air is long, cold and not very snowy. The summer is cool and rainy, due to the arrival of moderate air masses. The average air temperature is +8 … + 12 ° С.

Within the temperate climatic zone, three climatic regions are distinguished. On the Pacific coast, which for a year has been affected by western winds from the ocean, a maritime

climate has formed. Here precipitation is more than 2000 mm per year. The average temperature in January is -0 ° C, in July – + 10 … + 12 ° C. Beyond the mountains, in the center of the continent, the continental climate region is formed. Here falls from 200 to 400 mm of precipitation a year. Summer is warmer, and winter is cold, so snow lies during the cold season. In the east, under the influence of seasonal winds, there was a monsoon climatic region with humid and cool summers and dry and cold winters. Because of the cold Labrador Current, thick fogs often occur here.

In the subtropical climatic zone, three regions are also distinguished. In the western part of the belt formed the Mediterranean region with a wet and warm winter and dry and hot summer. In the east – a monsoon region, similar to a similar region of the temperate zone, only with higher air temperatures. In the center of the continent is the continental region. Precipitation throughout the year is small, the annual amplitude of temperature fluctuations are large.

In the tropical belt, two regions are distinguished. In the east, under the influence of the moist north-east trade wind, a marine area with uniform considerable moisture was formed during the year. The air temperature here rarely falls below + 20 ° C. The annual rainfall exceeds

1500 mm. On the California peninsula, under the influence of cold currents, a continental climate region was formed. Precipitation is not enough here. Annual and diurnal temperature differences are significant.

A small area in the extreme south of the continent lies in the subequatorial belt. Climatic conditions in much of North America are favorable for the cultivation of a variety of crops: in the temperate zone – wheat, corn; in subtropical – rice, cotton, citrus; in tropical coffee, sugar cane, bananas. In the tropical belt, two to three crops are harvested per year.

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Climatic zones of North America