AKMEISM is a modernist trend that declared the concrete-sensual perception of the external world, a return to the word of its original, not symbolic meaning.
At the beginning of their creative career, young poets, future Acmeists, were close to symbolism, visited “Ivanovo environments” – literary meetings in the St. Petersburg apartment Vyach. Ivanova, called the “tower”. In the “tower” classes were conducted with young poets, where they were trained in versification. In October 1911, the listeners of this “poetic academy” founded a new literary association “The Poets’ Workshop.” “Workshop” was a school of professional skill, and its leaders were young poets N. Gumilev and S. Gorodetsky. They in January 1913 in the journal Apollo published the declarations of the acmeist group.
The new literary trend that united the great Russian poets did not last long. The creative search for Gumilev, Akhmatova, and Mandelstam went beyond acmeism. But the humanistic meaning of this trend was significant – to revive a man’s thirst for life, to restore the sensation of her beauty. It included also A. Akhmatova, O. Mandelstam, M. Zenkevich, V. Narbut and others.
Acmeists are interested in the real world, not in the other world, in the beauty of life in its specifically sensual manifestations. Nebulae and hints of symbolism were opposed to the major perception of reality, the authenticity of the image, the clarity of the composition. In some ways, the poetry of acmeism is the revival of the “golden age”, the time of Pushkin and Baratynsky.
The highest point in the hierarchy of values for them was a culture identical to the universal memory. Therefore, acmeists are so often drawn to mythological subjects and images. If the Symbolists in their work focused... on music, then acmeists – to spatial arts: architecture, sculpture, painting. Gravitation to the three-dimensional world was expressed in the fascination of acmeists with objectivity: a colorful, sometimes exotic detail could be used for purely pictorial purpose.
The aesthetics of acmeism: – The world must be perceived in its visible concreteness, appreciate its realities, and not break away from the earth; – it is necessary to revive the love for one’s body, the biological principle in man, to value man, nature; – the source of poetic values is on earth, and not in the unreal world; – in poetry must be merged into 4 beginnings: 1) Shakespeare’s traditions in depicting the inner world of man; 2) the tradition of Rabelais in chanting the body; 3) the traditions of Villon in chanting the joys of life; 4) Gautier’s tradition of chanting the power of art.
The basic principles of acmeism: – the liberation of poetry from the symbolist calls to the ideal, the return to it of clarity; – rejection of the mystical nebula, acceptance of the earthly world in its diversity, visual concreteness, sonority, color; – the desire to give the word a certain, precise meaning; – the objectivity and clarity of images, the refinement of details; – appeal to a person, to the “authenticity” of his feelings; – poeticization of the world of primordial emotions, primitive-biological nature; – a roll call with past literary epochs, the widest aesthetic associations, “longing for world culture”.
Distinctive features of acmeism: – hedonism (enjoyment of life), adamism (beast essence), clarism (simplicity and clarity of language); – a lyrical plot and an image of the psychology of experience; – colloquial elements of the language, dialogues, narratives.