Friedrich Schiller is a German poet, historian and philosopher.
Childhood and youth
Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller was born in Marbach-on-Neckar, Württemberg, Holy Roman Empire. His parents were Johann Kaspar Schiller – military paramedic and Elizabeth Dorothea Code.
In 1763, his father was appointed a recruiter in the German city of Schwäbisch Gmünd, because of which the entire Schiller family moved to Germany, settling in the small town of Lorch.
In Lorch Schiller attended primary school, but because of discontent with the quality of education, he often skipped classes. Since his parents wanted him to become a priest, they hired a local priest who taught Schiller to Latin and Greek.
In 1766 the Schiller family returned to Ludwigsburg, where his father was transferred. In Ludwigsburg, Schiller was attracted by Karl Eugene of Württemberg. A few years later, Schiller graduated from the Faculty of Medicine in the Karl-founded Württemberg Academy – the “Charles High School”.
His first work, the drama “The Robbers”, was written during his studies at the academy. It was published in 1781, and the next year in Germany it was staged. The drama told of the conflict between the two brothers.
In 1780 Schiller was appointed to the post of regimental doctor in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. He was not happy with this appointment, and so one day he left the service without permission to look at the first production of his play “The Robbers”. Since he left the location of the unit without permission, Schiller was arrested and sentenced to 14 days of arrest. He was also banned from publishing his work in the future.
In 1782 Schiller fled to Weimar through Frankfurt, Mannheim, Leipzig and Dresden. And in 1783 in Bonn, Germany, the following production of Schiller with the title “The Conspiracy of Fiesco in Genoa” was presented.
In 1784 in the theater “Schauspiel Frankfurt” was presented a play of five parts “Cunning and Love.” A few years later the play was translated into French and English.
In 1785 Schiller presented the play “Ode to Joy”.
In 1786 he presented a novel “Crime due to lost honor,” which was written in the form of a criminal report.
In 1787, Hamburg presented his dramatic play in five parts of Don Carlos in Hamburg. In the play
we are talking about the conflict between Don Carlos and his father – the Spanish King Philip II.
In 1789 Schiller began to work as a teacher of history and philosophy in Jena. In the same place, he begins to write his historical works, one of which is The History of the Fall of the Netherlands.
In 1794 he published his work “Letters on the aesthetic education of man.” The work was written on the basis of events during the French Revolution.
In 1797, Schiller wrote a ballad called “Polykratov Ring”, which was published next year. In the same year he also introduced the following ballads: “Ivikov Cranes” and “Diver”.
In 1799, Schiller completed the writing of the Wallenstein trilogy, which consisted of plays “Wallenstein Camp”, “Piccolomini” and “Death of Wallenstein”.
In 1800 Schiller presented such works as “Maria Stewart” and “The Maid of Orleans”.
In 1801 Schiller presented the plays he translated “Carlo Gotsii, Turandot” and “Turandot, princess of China”.
In 1803 Schiller presented his dramatic work “The Messina Bride,” which was first shown in Weimar, Germany.
In 1804, he presented the dramatic work of Wilhelm Tell, based on the Swiss legend of a skillful archer named Wilhelm Tell.
The play of Schiller with the name “Robbers” is considered one of the first European melodramas. In the play, the viewer shows the prospect of the depravity of society and suggests a look at the class, religious and economic differences between people.
Awards and achievements
In 1802 Schiller was granted the status of a nobleman of the Duke of Weimar, who added to his name the prefix “background” testifying to his noble status.
Personal life and heritage
In 1790, Schiller married Charlotte von Lengefeld. The couple had four children.
At the age of 45, Schiller died of tuberculosis.
In 1839 in Stuttgart a monument was erected in his honor. The area on which it was erected was named in honor of Schiller.
There is an opinion that Friedrich Schiller was a freemason.
In 2008, scientists conducted a DNA test that showed that the skull in the grave of Friedrich Schiller does not belong to him and therefore his grave is now empty.