Phraseology as a branch of the science of language. Types of phraseological units.
Phraseology – this is a special section of the science of language, engaged in the study of the semantic and structural properties of phraseological units, studying the causes of their origin in the system of language and features of use in speech.
The term “phraseology” is formed from two Greek words: phrasis – “expression, speech” and logos – “teaching.”
Just as lexicology studies the vocabulary of a language, phraseology deals with the study of its phraseological composition. If the unit of language in its lexical system is a word, then in a phraseological system such a linguistic unit is a phraseological unit, or a phraseological
Phraseology (Greek phrásis, pp. Phráseōs expression) is a section of linguistics that studies the phraseological system of language in its present state and historical development (studying stable combinations in language) [Shansky, p. 4].
Phraseology is also called a set of stable combinations in the language as a whole, in the language of a particular writer, a separate artwork, etc.
The object of phraseology are stable (non-free) word combinations, reproduced in speech as ready and integral units:
· Count the crow, get trapped, win…
Such stable combinations of words are called phraseological units (FE), phraseological phrases, phraseologicalisms, phrases, idioms (Greek idioma person property).
The subject of phraseology as a section of linguistics is
· Study of the nature of phraseological units and their categorical features,
· As well as the identification of patterns of their functioning in speech [Molotkov, p. 18; LES, p. 560].
As an independent linguistic discipline, phraseology was formed in the 1940s. XX century. The researchers do not have a common opinion about what phraseology is, there is, therefore, no single glance at the composition of these units in the language.
The main tasks of phraseology in the study of the modern phraseological
1) the study of the semantic and grammatical features of phraseological units that delimit the latter, on the one hand, from free phrases (compare white, but white crow) and syntactically indecomposable (two boys, three girls, but far away), and on the other hand, from individual words in various grammatical forms (it will sharpen knives, but will grind lashes);
2) identification of the main types of phraseological units and the principles of their differentiation between themselves;
3) determining the causes of the origin of the main sources of replenishment and ways of developing phraseological units;
4) characteristic phraseological units by their belonging to different styles of language.
Differential signs of FO:
1. stability, that is, the unchangeability of its form, the measure of the semantic cohesion of components;
2. Reproducibility, ie regular repeatability (proverbs, aphorisms, sayings);
3. Integer meaning is the common meaning of the whole expression, not of individual words.
The main types of phraseological units of the Russian language
There are three types of phraseological units.
1. Phraseological fusion – stable combinations, the generalized-integral value of which is not deduced from the value of their constituent components, i. e., they are not motivated by them from the point of view of the modern state of the vocabulary: get trapped, beat the buckets, eat the dog, from the bay, Hands out, wherever it went and under. We do not know what is a “trickle” (as in the old days we were called a machine for weaving nets), we do not understand the word baklushi (wooden billets for spoons, the manufacture of which did not require skilled labor). However, the whole meaning of these phraseological units is clear to every Russian person.
2. Phraseological unity – stable combinations, the generalized-integral meaning of which is partly due to the semantics of the constituent components used in the figurative meaning: to go into a dead end, to beat the key, to swim with the flow, to hold the stone in your bosom, to take in hand, to bite the tongue. Such phraseological units may have “external homonyms”, that is, coinciding with them in composition of the word combinations, used in direct (non-metaphorical) meaning: We were to sail along the river for five days; I was so thrown on a bump that I bit my tongue and suffered from pain.
Unlike phraseological fusion, which has lost its figurative meaning in the language, phraseological unity is always perceived as metaphors or other paths. So, among them one can distinguish stable comparisons (like a bath leaf, as if on needles, as a cow licked like a cow saddle), metaphorical epithets (tin-plated, iron grip), hyperbolas (golden mountains, a sea of pleasure, as far as evil is enough) Litot (with a poppy seed, grab for a straw).
3. Phraseological combinations – stable turns, the meaning of which is motivated by the semantics of their constituent components, one of which has a phraseological connotation: to downcast the head (in the language there are no stable phrases “to lower the arm”, “to lower the leg”). The verb to down in the sense of “omit” has a phraseological connotation and is not combined with other words. The phraseologically related meaning of the components of such phraseological units is realized only under conditions of a strictly defined lexical environment. We say the velvet season, but we will not say “velvet month”, “velvet autumn”.
This classification of phraseological units is often supplemented by so-calledphrasemiological expressions, which are also stable, however they consist of words with free meanings, that is, they differ in semantic derivation: Happy hours are not observed; To be or not to be; Fresh tradition, but hard to believe. In this group of phraseological units include winged expressions, proverbs, sayings. In addition, many phraseological expressions have a fundamentally important syntactic feature: they are not phrases, but whole sentences.