A great place in the satirical literature of the 17th century. takes an anticlerical theme. Selfishness, greed of the priests are exposed in the satirical story “The Tale of the Savior of the Savior,” written in rhymed verse.
A bright accusatory document depicting the life and customs of monasticism is the Kalyazin petition. The monks withdrew from the worldly vanity not at all, to kill their flesh, indulge in prayer and repentance. Behind the walls of the monastery lies a full and full of drunken revelry life. The story is chosen by one of the largest monasteries of Rus – the Kalyazinsky Monastery, which allows the author to reveal the typical features of the life of Russian monasticism 17c.
“Kalyazin petition” ridicules the debauched and drunken life of monks who do not want to work or go to church, even praying for laziness. For this reason, the monks of the Kalyazin Monastery complain to Archbishop Semyon of Tver on his archimandrite Gabriel.
Both clerics are historical figures who lived in the second half of the 17th century. Taking as a basis the real facts, the story creates an acute satire on the disintegration of Russian monasticism, on the depravity of the Russian clergy creating a generalized image of the monastic estate. The parody of petitions was widespread. “Kalyazin’s petition” is sustained in an emphatically serious tone, she lists in detail all, even the most fantastic requests of the monks and their complaints, very carefully and consistently observing the external form of the documentary presentation.
Behind the external drunkenness of drunken monks, the narrative hides national hatred of monasteries, church feudal lords. The main means of satirical exposure is a sarcastic irony, hidden in the tear complaint of petitioners.
A characteristic feature of the pet style is its aphorism; The mockery is often expressed in the form of folk rhymed jokes. N: “And to us, and so it’s not satisfying: turnip and horse-radish, yes black pottery Ephraim”: “Mice with bread swelled up, and we hungered
for mrem”, etc. These tales are found in the author’s “Kalyazin petition” sly Russian mind, so inclined to irony, so simple-minded in his craftiness. “
An extremely entertaining story is the Tale of Kura and Lisitsa. It also uses sacred scripture for parody, satirical purposes. The story spread in three editions: prosaic, verse, mixed.
In its construction, the story repeats the scheme of a fairy tale about animals. Her satirical goal is a ruthless mockery of the authority of the official church. In the image of the Fox, a hypocritical and greedy pop confessor is ridiculed. Having endowed the fox with external piety, sanctimonious gentleness and humility, and then with the opposite features of rudeness and cruelty, when she discards the unnecessary mask, the author reveals the hypocrisy and formal piety of the spiritual estate. The story plays a big role in the dialogue of the characters, it has the form of a dramatic assessment, a moralizing fable. You can find in it and elements of the parody of one of the most common genres of church literature-preaching.
In the allegorical images of the Russian folk tale about animals, the hypocrisy and hypocrisy of priests and monks, the inner falsity of their formal piety, “The Story of the Kura and the Fox,” is exposed by the cunning hypocrite Lisa. It is not difficult to recognize the typical clergyman who, with spruce “divine words” The only thing that cost Lice was to lure the Kura and grab it in claws, as the fake mask of the confessor, saddened by the sins of the Kura, falls off her. Now Lisa calculates the personal grievances Chur caused her, sew a chicken coop.
The story is denounced not only by the clergy, but also criticizes the text of the “Holy Scripture”, accurately noting its contradictions.
Also, the satirical novels of the 17th century include the “ABC of a naked and poor person”, in which the theme of denouncing social inequality and protest against the power of the rich and “The service of the tavern” and “The Tale of the Wizard” sound.
On the parallels of a drunkard – a Christian martyr built satirical story “Feast of tavern yaryzyk,” or “Service of the tavern.” The story exposes the “state system” of drinking through the “tsar’s tavern”. In order to replenish the state treasury in the mid-17th century. a monopoly on the production and sale of alcoholic beverages was introduced. The whole country was covered with a network of “tsar’s taverns”, led by “kissers”, nicknamed so because they swore an oath-kissed the cross – “fearlessly for the profit to expect his sovereign’s mercy, and in that device do not fear yourself to keep, drive away. “
“Tsarev tavern” has become a source of real national calamity. Using their rights, “tselovalniki” shamelessly soldered and plundered the working people. Therefore, denunciation of the tavern in the story acquired a special urgency and urgency.
The anti-feudal democratic satire of 17c. along with folk satire, begins the satirical direction of Russian literature developed by progressive satirical writers of the 18th and 19th centuries.
The democratic satire touched upon the essential aspects of feudal-serf society, and its development went hand in hand with the development of folk satire. The general ideological orientation, clear class meaning, absence of abstract moralization brought together literary satire with the satire of the people, which contributed to the transition of satirical stories into folklore. Based on the experience of folk satire, literary satire often used forms of business writing (“litigation”, judicial discharge, petition), church literature (church service, life).