For each historical era, its perceptions and understanding of the environment are characteristic. In the Middle Ages, uneducated people relied on rumors, received knowledge from the stories of the elders of the role, legends and retellings. Sometimes it was difficult for them to tell the truth from fictions and fables. Little was known about other countries. Rarely who has been outside his village or city. The stories of merchants and pilgrims about what they saw in distant countries, overgrown with fictions and embellished with imagination. The knowledge of many people about the world was limited to native spaces visible from the highest building of the belfry of the local church.
The speed of movement was small. For example, the journey from Rome to London took almost seven weeks.
The population of the European continent remained quite young, and the average life expectancy was short. Forty-year-olds were considered advanced people. Infant mortality was extremely high. Sometimes the children’s family died more than survived, and this was perceived as a tragic inevitability.
The measure of the spirituality of the life of a medieval man was the Christian religion. But in the folk culture, along with Christian beliefs, ancient pagan beliefs and customs continued to exist, which was vividly manifested in ceremonial holidays: carols, sharebrickets, scraps, etc. In medieval cities, winter carnivals and a meeting of spring were organized by carnivals. Instead of condemning or banning carnivals, the clergy willingly took part in them. For the time of carnivals, all prohibitions were abolished:
In the XIV-XV centuries. Important changes are taking place in the way of life of Europeans. There are new ideas about society. It is during this period that such concepts as the state border, the people, the nation, patriotism are affirmed.
As you know, in our time football is universally recognized. In the XII century. in medieval England, this game was just beginning its journey. In English cities, football was played on market squares and even on narrow, crooked streets, and the number of players reached one hundred or more. We played from lunch to sunset, almost without rules. You could play with your hands and feet, grab the player, leading the ball, and knock him down. In the excitement of the game, the crowd flew to the trading tents, smashing them into chips. Filled with horror, respectful citizens, monks or knights clung to the walls of the houses. In the villages, even the rivers were not an obstacle for the players… The players were in a bruise, they broke their arms, legs and spines, knocked out their eyes, smashed their noses… The church, feudal lords and merchants united against football. In 1313, King Edward II banned the game in London, calling it “