Rise of the papacy in the era of the developed Middle Ages
Dependence on secular power reduced the moral standards of the clergy and church discipline. Monastic regulations were not observed, monasticism degenerated, monks were looked upon as ignoramuses and idlers. This led to monasticism in the movement for the reform of monasteries, the rise of the role of the clergy and the liberation of the church from secular dependence. This movement originated in the middle of the X century. in the Cluny Abbey in Burgundy and was called Cluny.
One of the leaders of the Klynite movement was the monk Hildebrant, with the participation of which in 1059 it was decided that the Pope should be elected by the Cardinals without any interference by secular authorities. Cardinals could appoint only the acting pope, the emperors also lost the opportunity to influence their decision.
In 1073, Gildebrant became a pope and adopted the name of Gregory VII. The new pope began to implement the key and a certain program in practice. He forbade the white
It was because of this that a conflict arose between Gregory VII and the German Emperor Henry IV. In 1076 the emperor declared Gregory VII unworthy of the papal order. In response, Gregory VII excommunicated Henry IV from the church, freeing his subjects from the oath. Thus began the struggle for investment. The emperor was forced to yield, because the excommunicated monarch could not rule the state. In January 1077, Henry IV arrived at the castle of Canossa, where the pope then stayed.
The emperor stood for three days under the walls of the castle barefoot, in the snow, in rags, and begged his father to forgive him. On the fourth day, Henry was admitted to the pope, and he fell at his feet with a plea: “Holy Father, have mercy on me!” Gregory VII granted the emperor absolution.
But the dramatic nature of the Canossus events remained without consequences: soon Henry again appointed bishops. In the struggle for the investment of
The papacy reached its highest power during the pontificate of Innocent III. It was one of the most influential Roman popes of the Middle Ages. He tried to strengthen the church, to regulate relations with the imperial power and establish a primacy over it. Innocent III restored all papal confluences in Italy. If his predecessors called themselves “governors of St. Peter,” Innocent III proclaimed himself “the governor of God on earth.”
In 1274, but the time of the pontificate of Gregory X was adopted a new order for the election of popes by the conclave of cardinals. The word “conclave” in Latin means “closed room”. Now the cardinals had to hold a meeting in complete isolation from the outside world. If for three days the cardinals could not choose the pope, then they were given only one meal for dinner and dinner, and five days later only bread and water. Such conditions should help accelerate the process of electing the Pope.
After the death of Clement IV in 1268 in the town of Viterbo, the cardinals gathered to elect a new pope. But for a year and a half the cardinals could not reach an agreement. Their arguments were so boring for the city authorities that the doors of the house where the cardinals sat were closed. They were given so much food that they did not die of hunger. This acted and on September 1, 1271, the cardinals elected Pope Gregory X. To avoid such scandalous delays. Gregory X introduced a system of the conclave, which, in fact, has survived to this day.
At the end of the XIII century. The papacy seemed to have won a decisive victory. But the conflict between secular and spiritual power influenced the political and moral consciousness of Europeans. Both authorities, mercilessly accusing each other, brought into the minds of people confusion, obscuring the halo of infallibility of both popes and emperors.
Investments -1) the ceremony of introducing a vassal into possession of a land feud; 2) appointment to church offices.
The Cardinal is the next following the Pope in the Catholic Church. The post of cardinals exists since VI century, when the popes began to share their duties with the bishops. The Cardinals became the first advisers and assistants in church affairs. The sign of the cardinal rank – the red cap – is perceived as a symbol of willingness to shed blood for the church.