1. What icons were created in Cossack times?
Created icons and Cossack times. During the second half of the 17-18 centuries. especially popular in Ukraine was the icon of the Pokrov. In the lower part of these icons there were images of representatives of the Cossack sergeant, the atamans, the hetmans. The Mother of God covers and protects the cloak of people who kneel around her and pray.
The icon of the Virgin Protection with the portrait of Bogdan Khmelnitsky has been preserved, the picture of which you saw at the beginning of the lesson. The hetman on it is depicted in a black fur-trimmed red hat decorated with white feathers, in a satin zhupan and a cape with a wide black fur collar, with a mace in the left hand. The portrait of the hetman draws attention to his bearing and gaze, in which dignity and confidence are felt. The icon is kept in the National Art Museum of Ukraine in Kiev.
Another famous icon among the Cossacks, who ask for protection from the Mother of God, depicts the last koshevoy Peter Kalnyshevsky. The icon was written in the early seventies of the 18th century. for the Church of the Sich. In the upper part of it there is an image of the Mother of God and the two most revered saints in Kiev – Saint Nicholas and Archangel Michael. Below, near the military Kleynods, two groups of Cossacks are depicted. Individual features are different only Cossack leaders, who are on the icon two. One of them, with a saber, according to researchers,
2. How to create icons?
To create icons I used mineral paints, diluted on egg yolks with the addition of a small amount of consecrated water. Carefully prepared and the foundation, which was supposed to draw an icon. Each stage, namely: the search for wood, cutting and grinding boards, drying them, shuffling, hollowing out of the ark – were accompanied by prayers and consecrations. The bottom of the ark was left ribbed so that the gesso would stick well to it. Between the layers of levkas, a thin canvas was laid – a pavolo. It was covered several times with gesso. The board plated in this way was gilded, that is, it was applied to it a layer of gold leaf.