At the turn of the IX-X centuries. in the Czech princedom the princely clan of the Přemíslović stands prominently. It Precisely, at the head of the tribal union of the Czechs, laid the foundations of an independent Czech state with a center in Prague. Their power was especially strong during the years of the reign of Vaclav. The main external danger for the young state was the aggressive plans of the German King Henry I Ptitselov. Prince Vaslav recognized himself as his vassal and undertook to pay a distance. This aroused discontent of Czech nobles; Wenceslas slyly murdered the conspirators, whom his brother Boleslav hired.
In the people, the cult of Prince Wenceslas of the wise and powerful ruler of the Czech state spread. He was described as a martyr, an outstanding Christian
Preconditions zealously defended their rights and skillfully used the feuds in the German Empire to strengthen power. Prince Vratislav II supported Emperor Henry IV in his struggle against the pope for investment and in 1085 received from him the title of king. However, the hereditary royal power in the Czech state was established at the end of the XII century. The growth of the power of the Preconditions met with resistance from the pope and German rulers from the Habsburg dynasty. The murder of the Czech king Vaclav III in 1306 discontinued the existence of the Přemíslovi dynasty.
In 1310, the Czech throne fell into the hands of the German princes of Luxembourg, who were politically and culturally influenced by France. During the reign of the first Czech king, Jan Luxemburg, the royal power significantly weakened. King Yan visited the Czech Republic only for money. This strengthened the influence of the Czech Seim – the assembly of the
Unlike Jan of Luxembourg, his son Charles I consolidated his power and turned the Czech state into a strong monarchy. He paid much attention to the development of crafts and trade, to the growth of cities, primarily Prague: here was opened a university, luxurious palaces, cathedrals, etc. were erected.
This was the first Czech ruler, who became the German king, and later – the emperor Charles IV. He confirmed the independence of the Czech kingdom “Golden Bull” in 1356.
Although the Czech Republic actually gained political independence, it continued to be under German influence, which intensified at the end of the 12th century. as a result of German colonization. The Germans were attracted to the cities, because the Czech rulers granted privileges to foreigners. Soon, in the hands of the German colonists, mining, trade, handicrafts, and city self-government were transferred. Such a situation could not but arouse the indignation of the Czechs.
XII century. From the letter of the Czech prince Sobeslava II granting privileges to the German colonists in Prague
5. They should not go on a campaign, except that they will only have to fight for their homeland. 6. If the prince is on a campaign outside the Czech Republic, then the Germans must guard Prague at every gate with twelve shields. 7. To judge for murder the prince must… 8. If someone breaks the peace between them, then let the guilty party pay the prince 10 UAH… 15. If a German finds a stolen item, then it must be confiscated in the presence of a judge of the Germans. 16. If a thief is a German, then he must be judged by the prince. 17. In any case, if the Germans are not found guilty or accused, let their wives and children bear no losses and not be humiliated…
Especially the Czechs were dissatisfied with the actions of the Catholic clergy. In the papal Rome received most of the church tithes that were gathering in the Czech Republic. Almost at every step, indulgences and church offices were sold. All this gave the Czechs grounds for harsh criticism of the Catholic Church.