At present, in an environment that surrounds a person, changes occur that are associated with the influence of the scientific and technological revolution and human economic activity. This, first of all, clogging up air, reservoirs, mismanagement of the land, etc.
The clogging of the atmosphere – the gas envelope of the Earth – is one of the most important and special environmental problems today. It is well known how important air is for any living organism: a person can live a month without water, without water – a week, without air – in a matter of seconds. At the same time, what we breathe undergoes a strong influence of a number of factors – the results of intensive development of such industries as fuel and energy, metallurgy, petrochemical, etc.
The fuel and energy complex includes the activities of thermal power plants, whose work is associated with the release into the atmosphere of sulfur oxide, nitrogen, formed in the process of
combustion of unprocessed coal.
No less dangerous air pollutant are the enterprises of the metallurgical industry, throwing into the air various chemical compounds, especially heavy metals and rare metals. A dangerous source of air pollution are steel and petrochemical products, especially hydrocarbon compounds (methane, etc.).
A dangerous air pollutant is tobacco smoke, from which, in addition to nicotine, a large number (about 200) of toxic substances, such as carbon monoxide, benzopyrine and others, enters the air.
As a result of pollution of the atmosphere, there were such phenomena as the greenhouse effect – an increase in the overall temperature on Earth; ozone hole formed as a result of disturbance of the ozone layer in the atmosphere by nitrogen oxides emitted by the engines of ballistic and space rockets; smog – accumulation of harmful gases in the lower layers of the atmosphere as a result of increased work of boiler houses, working on coal, fuel oil, diesel fuel, and also as a result of gas contamination of air by vehicles; acid rains – compounds of sulfur and nitrogen of
air with water and falling to the Earth in the form of rain (acid).
This “rain” adversely affects the skin, hair, and also on the development of plants, accelerates the corrosion of metals, destroys gypsum, marbles, acidifies water bodies and soils, which leads to the death of fish, forests, and animals that live in them.
The main organizational and technological methods for combating air pollution are as follows:
Reducing the number of power plants (thermal power plants – thermal ones) through the construction of more powerful, equipped with the newest systems for the purification and utilization of gas and dust emissions;
Cleaning coal before it hits the TPP;
Replacement of coal and fuel oil at TPP with environmentally friendly fuel – gas;
The regulation of internal combustion engines in cars, the installation of special catalysts on them to neutralize carbon monoxide, the replacement of harmful ethyl petrol, air polluting lead, is less environmentally harmful.
Of particular importance in the purification of atmospheric air is the gardening of cities and villages, especially nil about industrial zones.