The Crusades of 1096-1270

The first in 1096 moved to distant Jerusalem detachments of French and German peasants – almost unarmed, without food supplies. On the way, they robbed and killed everyone, especially the Jews. Their fate was sad. The Byzantine emperor quickly sent them across the Bosporus to Asia Minor, where the Seljuks almost all this “army” and killed. Soon, well-armed knightly detachments set off for Jerusalem. The Byzantine emperor and them forwarded to Asia Minor. In the summer of 1099 the Knights-Crusaders broke into Jerusalem and committed a monstrous massacre there.

XIII century. From the story of the medieval historian Nikita Honiata about the robbery of the crusaders of Constantinople in 1204.

I do not know where to start and how to finish a description of all that these wicked people have done. There were such that they broke precious cups; their ornaments were hidden in the bosom, and from them they drank, as if from glasses… It is impossible to listen

indifferently about the plundering of the main church. The Holy Nalos, adorned with values ​​and extremely beautiful, were cut to pieces and divided among the warriors along with other magnificent things…

If someone dared to contradict them in anything or did not heed their demands, he was stabbed; and there was no one who cried that day. At crossroads, in alleys, in temples – everywhere plaintive groans, moaning and weeping, men’s screams, sobbing women, screams of children; very often – robbery, adultery, captivity, separation of friends…

To the beginning of the ХІI century. crusaders built up Syria and Palestine feudal castles and founded there several of their states, the largest of which was the kingdom of Jerusalem. Thus ended the First Crusade.

Crusader states

In the XII century. French and German kings led the Second Crusade. The Seljuk Turks, led by the talented warlord Saladin, completely defeated its members in Asia Minor. The third campaign of the Crusaders was led by the old German Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, the poor and vengeful French

King Philip II Augustus and the brave English King Richard I the Lionheart. Participants of the campaign soon quarreled, so it ended unsuccessfully. But the participants of the Fourth Crusade showed themselves not as defenders of the Christian church, but as real robbers from the big road. To please the Venetian merchants, they did not oppose Muslims, but against Christian Byzantium. The Crusaders first plundered in the Balkans the Christian city of Zara, which belonged to the Hungarian king, a participant in the crusading movement.

During the XIII century. there were several more loud, but unsuccessful Crusades. Only after that, Europe came to its senses. Appeals of the popes to the new campaigns in the “holy land” the population now missed the ears. Meanwhile, the Seljuks gradually regained the possession of the Crusaders in the East.

What gave Crusades to Europe and the East? They took the lives of hundreds of thousands of people, caused enormous losses and, worst of all, accustomed feudal lords to any war considered “sacred.” According to some historians, they contributed to the mutual enrichment of European and Eastern cultures, in the opinion of others, cultural exchanges took place without the crusaders.

Crusades led to the death of Byzantium and strengthened the influence of Venice and France, erected a wall of estrangement between the Christian West and the Muslim East.

Crusaders brought to Europe a game of chess – the name is derived from the Persian exclamation “checkmate!”, That is, “the king is dead!”. The church took care of the name of one of the chess figures “elephant” replaced with “bishop”. So, the medieval game of chess reflected in its kind of state system.

Nala – a high table with a sloping top for reading in a church standing liturgical books or for a temple icon.

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The Crusades of 1096-1270