F. FM Dostoevsky’s novel “Crime and Punishment” is one of the most complicated works not only in the writer’s work, but also in Russian literature in general. Today, when the habit of watching the screen version of books “based on motives” is strong, it is not easy to read a “voluminous novel”, to see its deep meaning, to follow the difficult, despite the acute, detective plot, action. But if you carefully read the work. you can understand that everything in it is subject to the disclosure of the author’s greatest humanistic idea. In “Crime and Punishment” reflected a difficult time – the 60-ies of the XIX century. Advanced people of the era believed that a strong personality. bright and extraordinary, can rise above a society. Dostoevsky showed the ferment of minds, the search for his “I” and, as a result, the creation of theories, opposing man and the world around him. The ideas of Raskolnikov and Luzhin,
Svidrigailov’s vital position is not the author’s fiction, but really existing views. Economic theory Luzhin almost completely coincides with the “theory of rational egoism” Dobrolyubov and Chernyshevsky. And Raskolnikov has a real prototype, man. who committed a crime not for money, but under the influence of his idea. For the third quarter of the XIX century, a man’s departure from God is typical. People did not find an explanation for the terrible sins and atrocities that were going on in the earth. But according to Dostoevsky, a man chooses his own way. The Almighty can only show him the way, direct it. It is these two lines: the debunking of the theories that put one person above others, and the affirmation of the priority of the Christian commandments and moral principles – the basic in the novel ” Crime and Punishment. “And the subject, the system of images, the composition of the work, are subordinated to their affirmation. The plot of the novel is based on a real fact – a murder committed by a young man not because of money but under the influence of his
ideas. The heart of the novel is a psychological analysis of the crime and its but “Crime and Punishment” is a social and philosophical work, so the author seeks to uncover the vices of a society that is pushing a man to commit atrocity. Raskolnikov is not an ordinary killer, his copy of the rules is based on scheno © 2005 act is the desire not only to prove the correctness of its conclusions, but also the desire to rise above the “anthill”. Still further narration proves the falsity of his theory, which divides people into “lower” and “higher” to “loathsome creature” and “the right to have” to kill for good. Analysis of the state of the hero after the crime is merged Dostoevsky together with the analysis of the philosophical theory of Raskolnikov. The hero himself, an intelligent and honest man, perfectly sees the injustice of the world around him, sees that some, insignificant and stupid, live in magnificent mansions on the banks of the Neva, enjoy the coolness of Vasilievsky Island in the summer, while others, just, smart, sensitive, are forced to huddle in barracks at the Haymarket, in the summer to choke with stench and stench of the main shopping district of St. Petersburg. And he understands that people are divided into two parts: the powerful of this world and the “creatures trembling.” But this division is not based on material, but on the moral sign: “… who is strong and strong in mind and spirit, he… and the lord!”. He recognizes the right of one person to be superior to others, to rule the court, execute and pardon at will. He does not believe in God and believes that a person can be a judge. The main thing that is opposed to Raskolnikov’s theory is the truth of Sonya Marmeladova, her vital position. The image of Sony is one of the most important in the novel, it embodied Dostoevsky’s idea of ”God’s man.” Sonia lives by Christian precepts. Set in the same difficult conditions of existence as Raskolnikov, she retained a living soul and that necessary connection with the world that Raskolnikov broke, who committed the most terrible sin – murder. Sonechka refuses to judge anyone, accepts the world as he is. When Raskolnikov asks her: “… which of them will die?” Sonechka immediately replies: “And who put me here to judge: who lives, who does not live?” It is with Sonya that Raskolnikov’s path, the path of repentance, resurrection. To completely debunk the idea of Raskolnikov, Dostoevsky uses a technique that has been widely used in Russian literature: he introduces the doubles of the main character. These are Luzhin and Svidrigailov. Economic theory Luzhin at first glance has nothing to do with the ideas of Raskolnikov, but in their basics
There is one and the same thought: one person stands over the rest of the people, universal laws were not created for him. Both Luzhin and Raskolnikov allow bloodshed, but if Raskolnikov can kill for the sake of the future, for the sake of the good of thousands of people, then Luzhin allows the shedding of blood for personal gain. Svidrigailov lives on the principle of permissiveness; he believes that all the moral foundations of society are not created for him. That’s why the trail of crimes follows him. It is thanks to Luzhin and Svidrigailov that we can understand what the idea of Raskolnikov can transform into, how much evil she conceals. The composition of the novel is also subordinated to the discrediting of Raskolnikov’s theory. Only one part of Six is dedicated to the crime, the other five are the punishment of Raskolnikov. But this is not physical, but moral punishment. Justice is accomplished only at the end of the sixth part and in the epilogue. The novel is built in such a way that we learn about the theory itself after the crime, the author gives us the opportunity to realize that such views bear only harm. The composition of the novel is also connected with the penetration of the Christian dogma into the soul of Raskolnikov. Three times in the narrative there is a parable about the resurrection of Lazarus. The first time Porfiry Petrovich asks Rodion, does he believe in the resurrection, the second time – it is read by Sonya, the third – in the epilogue. So Dostoevsky shows the possibility of a moral resurrection through the painfully long path of repentance. It is no accident that Sonia reads Raskolnikov’s parable in the fourth chapter of the fourth part of the novel. This figure takes on a symbolic meaning: it was four days later that Lazarus was resurrected. An immense role in the novel is played by the epilogue. In it, Dostoevsky shows the Apocalypse in his understanding. People embraced by pride, a world that is falling apart. Only faith can save the world. More than a century separates us from the events described in the novel. It may seem that we are very far from that time. But today, when old laws, norms of behavior are destroyed, and new ones are not yet created, a person can commit a crime in the name of power over people. The novel “Crime and Punishment” is designed to prevent the recurrence of past mistakes.