Regularities of the change of natural complexes of land and ocean
In the fact that there are different natural complexes on land and in the Ocean, one can be convinced by realizing an imaginary journey along one of the meridians from north to south. Such a change of natural complexes can be traced on all continents. Its main cause on the plains is the change in climatic conditions, depending on geographical latitude. This pattern was called latitudinal zoning. Latitudinal zoning is a consequence of the sphericity of the Earth. All components of the geographical envelope are considered zonal. Thus, zonality is found in every natural complex, regardless of the area it occupies. The largest units of latitudinal zoning are the geographical belts. They coincide with the climatic zones and have the same names.
Within the natural belts on land, natural zones are clearly distinguished – large natural complexes with common climatic conditions, soils, vegetation and fauna. The formation of natural areas is primarily due to the type of climate.
The natural complexes of land change partly also in the longitude direction. After all, the air masses, formed over the Ocean, moving over the land, gradually change their properties. They lose moisture and, depending on the underlying surface, change the temperature. At the same time, the amplitude of temperature fluctuations significantly increases according to the seasons of the year. Climatic conditions cause corresponding changes in natural complexes.
In the mountains, the air temperature, pressure and humidity change with increasing altitude, that is, the climatic conditions that cause a change in natural complexes change
The natural complexes of the World Ocean also vary according to latitude and proximity to land. Here distinguish natural belts. They differ in the type of water masses and in the features of the organic world. Oceanic natural complexes also change with depth.
The natural complexes of the Earth change very quickly under the influence of human economic activity. Land plowing, mining, deforestation, development of the shelf zone – all this leads to a change or even the destruction of some natural complexes. Anthropogenic landscapes are formed: agricultural lands, cities, quarries, communication routes, reservoirs, etc. In order to maintain equilibrium in nature, it is necessary to economically use its wealth and resources.