In the fact that there are different natural complexes on land and in the Ocean, one can be convinced by realizing an imaginary journey along one of the meridians from north to south. Such a change of natural complexes can be traced on all continents. Its main cause on the plains is the change in climatic conditions, depending on geographical latitude. This pattern was called latitudinal zoning. Latitudinal zoning is a consequence of the sphericity of the Earth. All components of the geographical envelope are considered zonal. Thus, zonality is found in every natural complex, regardless of the area it occupies. The largest units of latitudinal zoning are the geographical belts. They coincide with the climatic zones and have the same names.
Within the natural belts on land, natural
Thus, due to high air temperatures and significant precipitation at the equator, a zone of moist equatorial forests was formed. If at least one of these indicators changes, then a zone of tropical deserts is already formed. Changes in components immediately affect the nature of the vegetation cover. That is why the names of the natural zones of the land coincide with the prevailing type of vegetation: for example, the zone of the tundra, taiga, mixed forests, steppes, deserts, etc.
The natural complexes of land change partly also in the longitude direction. After all, the air masses, formed over the Ocean, moving over the land, gradually change their properties. They lose moisture and, depending on the underlying surface, change the temperature. At the same time, the amplitude of temperature fluctuations significantly increases according to the seasons of the year. Climatic conditions cause corresponding changes in natural complexes.
In the mountains, the air temperature, pressure and humidity change with increasing altitude, that is, the climatic conditions that cause a change in natural complexes change rapidly. This phenomenon
The natural complexes of the World Ocean also vary according to latitude and proximity to land. Here distinguish natural belts. They differ in the type of water masses and in the features of the organic world. Oceanic natural complexes also change with depth.
The natural complexes of the Earth change very quickly under the influence of human economic activity. Land plowing, mining, deforestation, development of the shelf zone – all this leads to a change or even the destruction of some natural complexes. Anthropogenic landscapes are formed: agricultural lands, cities, quarries, communication routes, reservoirs, etc. In order to maintain equilibrium in nature, it is necessary to economically use its wealth and resources.