Features of the climate of Australia

Australia is the driest continent of the world. Rainfall here is five times less than in Africa, and air temperatures are also high. This is due to the influence of a number of climate-forming factors. Australia receives a large amount of solar energy, because its territory extends in tropical latitudes. The northern part of the continent is in a hot thermal belt, the southern part in a temperate zone.

The climate of Australia is significantly influenced by atmospheric circulation and the underlying surface. The territory of the continent is located in the zone of constant winds – the South-East trade winds, most of which are formed above the surface of the Pacific Ocean.

The South-East trade wind carries air masses saturated from the ocean to the continent. Consequently, the eastern slopes of the Great Dividing Range are constantly under the influence of moist sea air. Therefore, during the year, a lot of precipitation falls. Towering on the way of the trade winds,

the mountain system intercepts almost all the moisture, and the air that passes through the Great Dividing Range warms up and becomes dry, so precipitation does not drop out, and continental air masses form in the central and western expanses of Australia to promote the formation of deserts. And in addition, the length of Australia from east to west along the South Tropic is one and a half times more than Africa. Therefore, here the air temperature is not higher than in Africa, and the amount of precipitation is much lower.

The southern part of the island of Tasmania and the South Island of New Zealand are influenced by the constant wind of the Western transfer, which carries moist air masses to the Indian Ocean and causes uniform moistening here. The climate of the western, southern and eastern coasts of Australia is significantly influenced by cold and warm sea currents.

The fact that Australia is located in the southern hemisphere, causes the alternation here of the seasons, which does not coincide with the seasons of the Northern Hemisphere. Consider how the climate situation in Australia changes throughout

the year.

In December, January and February, the Sun is at its zenith in the Southern Tropics. In Australia it’s summer. The area of ​​high atmospheric pressure is located in the south of the continent. The land is very warm, so the air entering the interior of Australia becomes even drier. Only in the north of the mainland, in the subequatorial belt, where the equatorial air masses penetrate at this time, is hot and humid. In June, July and August, in connection with the transition of the Sun to the Northern Hemisphere in Australia, winter. The belt of high atmospheric pressure shifts to the north and is located above the central region of Australia. The continent is cooled somewhat, and air masses move from land to ocean. Precipitation falls only in the far south.

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Features of the climate of Australia