Due to the increase in the population of our planet, there is a need for new territories for the expansion of cities and villages, the construction of factories and factories, and the construction of communication routes every year. Almost 1/3 of the land is occupied by agricultural lands: arable land, orchards, vineyards, meadows, pastures, tea plantations. Because of the application of improper methods of agriculture, the fertility of soils is rapidly declining, so they need to be rationally used and preserved to provide food for humanity.
Conservation and protection is also required by the organic world of continents and oceans. Because of the uncontrolled destruction of natural landscapes, many species of plants and animals disappear. The wildlife quickly loses its diversity, which was formed during a long evolution. In our time, a sharp decrease in the number of wild animals is observed in Africa, South and South-East Asia, as a result of which the biological balance on Earth
The forests are of great importance for the nature of the Earth. Due to excessive use of wood and deforestation, the area of the forest fund is constantly decreasing. So, if 150-200 years ago, forests occupied almost 50% of the land area, at present less than 30% of the area of continents and islands is covered with forests.
It should be remembered that forests are not only natural resources, but also the habitat of many species of plants and animals. As mentioned above, the natural environment changes very quickly, which leads to irreversible processes and deterioration of living conditions of a person.
At present, there are almost no territories on the earth’s surface where the influence of human activity is not felt. In places of residence of a significant number of the population, natural complexes have long been transformed into artificial ones – anthropogenic ones, where the components of nature are partially or completely changed, that is, they are adapted to meet the needs of people. Now the most destructive influence on nature is rendered by agriculture
A very important problem is the depletion of certain types of mineral resources. So, according to experts, by the middle of the XXI century. mankind will run out of stocks of many kinds of metals, oil and natural gas.
Increasing concern of scientists is the deterioration of the state of the environment. Especially disturbing are the changes taking place in the gas composition of the atmosphere: an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide, on the one hand, and a decrease in oxygen, on the other. As a result, the problem of the “greenhouse effect” of global warming of the Earth’s climate arises, which in turn can lead to active melting of the ice sheet of Antarctica and the Arctic and an increase in the level of the World Ocean. As a consequence, the most densely populated lowland areas of land will be threatened with flooding.
Along with the pollution of atmospheric air, surface water, soil, concern is caused by the pollution of the waters of the World Ocean and the reduction of its biological resources. It has now been established that the Earth’s natural resources are rather limited, so the continued existence of society depends on the state of nature and the balance in it. After all, the integrity of the geographical envelope is one of the most important regularities of its development. Any violation of complex relationships in nature always leads to unforeseen consequences.
Of course, it is up to the international organizations, above all the United Nations, to solve all problems of nature protection. Today, its members are 192 states of the world. The UN has developed a special program for the use of natural resources. A careful attitude to the natural environment must become a mandatory rule for each of us. To this end, it is necessary to reduce the volumes of industrial and domestic waste by means of their complex processing, to increase the number of nature protection facilities – unique standards for the conservation and renewal of natural complexes of the Earth.