Nature of Antarctica

1. What are the features of the relief of Antarctica?

The nature of Antarctica is not rich and unique. The continent consists of two layers – the surface of the continent and the glacial layer, the average thickness of which is 2000 km. Imagine 40 16-story buildings set against each other! Such a glacial cap contains up to 80% of all fresh water of the Earth.

The subglacial relief of the continent consists of plains and mountains. The height of the mountains reaches 5000 m. Determine the point on the map with the highest relief height and the deepest depression in the relief of Antarctica. Scientists have discovered a lake under the glacial cap that can help uncover some of the secrets of the coldest and most southerly continent.

2. In what months is the polar day and the polar night in Antarctica?

Antarctica, as well as Australia, “the mainland in reverse.” If the northern hemisphere is summer, then in Antarctica – winter. From October

to March there is a polar day, and from April to September – a polar night.

3. Why is Antarctica the lowest temperature on Earth?

Imagine how a man can feel a polar Antarctic night at a temperature of -70 ° C and the katabatic winds blowing from the center of the continent to the coasts. The harsh climate of Antarctica depends on its geographic location, a cold glacial cover that can reflect up to 90% of the sun’s heat, and also constant high pressure and the absence of clouds that can trap heat in the lower atmosphere and warm the surface of the continent.

4. What is the similarity and difference between the deserts of Africa and Antarctica? What explains the differences?

Antarctica is a cold desert, devoid of vegetation and animals. Unlike the tropical deserts, there is a large heat deficit. If in tropical deserts life is connected with water, then in the Antarctic deserts life is connected with heat. The areas of Antarctica’s surface freed from ice and snow are inhabited by mosses, lichens and algae. The animal world is associated with coastal waters, rich fish and plankton.

5. What changes can occur on the surface of the Earth, if there are strong volcanic eruptions in Antarctica, if the ice cover starts to melt quickly?

The development of volcanic activity in Antarctica can lead to the melting of the glacial cover, and this, in turn, will entail an increase in the level of the World Ocean and flooding.

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Nature of Antarctica