So man is arranged that one of the main questions that concern him is the question “What will happen?”. What will be the future – bright, peaceful, happy, full of carefree joy and childish laughter, or, conversely, black, bitter and joyless?
Such questions hardly imply accurate unambiguous answers. After all, the future is separated from us by an insurmountable wall of time. From time immemorial, man strove to overcome time and look into his “tomorrow.” But can we foresee the ways of human development?
An ardent desire to look beyond the veil of time is inherent in the writers of antiquity. For example, the desire for micro-order, in which everything depended on omniscient authority, the Greek philosopher Plato embodied in his work “The State”. The main idea of this work was the idea of creating an ideal political system.
Plato believed that the existence of man is impossible outside of social and political life.
state described by Plato consists of three classes: rulers, guards and workers-peasants, artisans, merchants, etc. Each class has its own circle of occupations and representatives of each of the classes must master their craft perfectly: the rulers-philosophers-management, guardians – protection of the state from external and internal enemies, and peasants and artisans – the production of material goods for themselves and for the first two classes.
Each class corresponds to its ethical virtues: the rulers-philosophers-wisdom, guardians-courage, peasants and artisans-obedience. A harmonious combination of the activities of estates and their virtues creates a just state system. The state system and the idea of justice correspond to the human soul, consisting of three parts: rational, lusting and plant. To eradicate greed and greed, Plato proposed to eliminate private property.
Plato even tried to translate his idea into life in Syracuse in Sicily. However, nothing came of the idea, and the philosopher became disillusioned. At the end of his life he wrote the book “Laws”,
where he depicted a police barracks state, which forces people to be happy against their will.
After Plato, the most famous utopians were T. Mohr, T. Campanella and F. Bacon.
In the Golden Book, as useful as it is amusing, about the best structure of the state and about the new island of Utopia, T. Mohr embodied his ideal of social order, allegedly carried out on a fantastic island located in the west in the ocean.
About the island in the book tells a fictional traveler Raphael Hitloy. On Utopia’s imaginary island of Utopia, the ideal social order is based on public ownership, on complete social and political equality, on the distribution of living necessities and on the general duty to work. All the inhabitants of the island are compulsorily engaged in crafts and agriculture. The main economic and social organization is a family headed by the oldest. All products produced by the family are surrendered to public warehouses, from where each family receives them on demand. The working day lasts 6 hours, and all the free time residents of Utopia can devote to the study of various sciences. In modern world literature there is a large number of works in which the authors try to look into the future. This is Zamyatin and Huxley, Orwell and Platonov, Lem and Bredbury, Efremov and the Strugatsky brothers. Many of them can not but seem pessimistic enough, causing fear. It makes us understand that we are responsible for our Earth, for our country, for our future. And in order that the terrible Apocalypse of St. John the Divine does not become a reality, the leitmotif of our life should be creation, not destruction. Then, in its rapid flight through space and time, our blue planet certainly will not turn into a cosmic “Flying Dutchman”, always rushing in the vastness of the universe. The leitmotif of our life should be creation, not destruction. Then, in its rapid flight through space and time, our blue planet certainly will not turn into a cosmic “Flying Dutchman”, always rushing in the vastness of the universe. The leitmotif of our life should be creation, not destruction. Then, in its rapid flight through space and time, our blue planet certainly will not turn into a cosmic “Flying Dutchman”, always rushing in the vastness of the universe.