Citations and ways of quoting
Quotations are literal extracts from statements by third parties or texts. Quotations are one of the types of direct speech in the Russian language.
Citation can be used in research papers and writings to reinforce the credibility of one’s own opinion by referring to more authoritative sources, which makes linguistic work scientifically sound, emphasizes its originality.
Thanks to the citation, the author has the opportunity to show the fullness and breadth of the work done or the studies conducted.
In Russian, the citation began to be applied in 1820 and is still successfully used.
Methods of quoting
There are three main ways of citing in Russian.
1) A quote is used as a direct speech. With this method
For example: Julius Caesar said: “It is better to die at once, rather than spend your whole life waiting for death.” Or another option: “It is better to die at once, rather than spend your whole life waiting for death,” said Julius Caesar.
2) You can also enter a quotation by indirect speech with the use of the “what” union. Quotations in such cases are also quoted and written with a lowercase letter.
For example: F. Ranevskaya said that “loneliness is a state of which there is no one to tell.”
3) Special introductory words can be used to introduce a quotation into the text. as he said, according to words, as he wrote, as he thought, or without them, the introductory words are replaced by punctuation marks or inverted commas.
For example: As Horace said, “Anger is a brief insanity.”
Or else: L. Beethoven “did not know any other signs of human superiority, except kindness.”
4) Citation of poems does not require auxiliary punctuation marks, in particular, quotation marks. It is enough to indicate the author and the name of the poem, which should be written from the red line. For example:
A. Griboyedov. “Woe from
What can Moscow provide me?
Today is the ball, and tomorrow two.
Basic requirements for quoting
1. The quoted text should always be placed in quotation marks and be identical to its original source. The lexical and grammatical form must fully correspond to the original.
2. It is strictly forbidden to combine excerpts in one quotation. which were taken from different sources cited. Each passage should be in the form of a separate quote.
3. If the expression is not cited in full, but in abbreviated or unfinished form (the quotation is taken out by a separate phrase from the context), instead of missing sentences or words, dots should be put in brackets. With the reduction of the quotation, it is important to monitor the logical completeness of the expression.
4. In Russian it is forbidden to enter a quotation, which occupies more than 30% of the total volume of the text. Excessive quoting not only makes your text a template, but also disrupts the possibility of its easy perception.
5. It is inadmissible to quote authors whose texts are indicated by the copyright protection symbol – ©. Mostly this concerns research papers and research articles. In this case, let’s say a variation of the text (the meaning of the fragment in your own words) with an optional reference to the source