In the XIV century. In the culture of Italian cities, the tendencies that witnessed the beginning of a new era, later called the Renaissance, began to be traced.
The basis of the Renaissance culture was Humanism, which originated in the XIV century. in Italy, and XV XVI centuries. spread throughout Europe. The followers of this movement were called humanists. They asserted the human right to earthly happiness, fought against church restrictions.
Humanists were sincere Christians, but the central place in their views on life was occupied by a man – free, independent, the creator of his destiny, who can achieve everything with his own efforts through knowledge. That is why, for the first time in European history, the elite, that is, the aggregate of the best and most respected, educated people, was formed not by origin and social position, but by ability. An important role in its formation was assigned to a culture that, after a “millennial decline,” was
rethought. The achievements of ancient scientists, philosophers, poets, architects, sculptors statistic for the creators of Renaissance culture.
Humanists were fully gifted people; The personality that combined several talents was considered universal. A classic example of the universal human Renaissance is Leonardo da Vinci – painter, sculptor, architect, poet, engineer, inventor.
XIV century. From the treatise Francesco Petrarch “On the means of the volatility of fate”
1. On the noble origin. Blood is always the same color. But if it is lighter than the blood of another person, this shows not about nobility, but about physical health. A truly noble person is not born with a great soul, but he makes himself so beautiful by his deeds.
2. About wealth. The rich have more envy than joy. Great wealth to get hard, troublesome store, unpleasant to spend. If you are stingy, then you become a watchman, and wealth owns you, and not you are wealth.
The circle of humanistic ideas was outlined by the poet Francesco Petrarca. He opposed the medieval scholasticism and became the creator
of a new system of cultural values, in the center of which was Man. Petrarch is the founder of the new European lyrics, the acknowledged master of the most complex poetic form – the sonnet, the author of the famous “Book of Songs” and a number of works of a humanistic nature.
An outstanding humanist, talented writer and scientist was the contemporary of Petrarch – Giovanni Boccaccio. He entered literature as a talented storyteller, a singer of human beauty, a critic of public vices: stinginess, self-interest, insincerity, ignorance. Boccaccio was the first biographer of Dante, it was he who named the famous “Comedy” of the Florentine poet divine and wrote comments to its first part.