1. What groups of the population are witnessed by the sources of the times of Kievan Rus and the subsequent centuries?
During the emergence of the first state on our lands – with the center in Kiev – the inhabitants of Rus were divided into certain groups. Everyone did his job: some grew bread, others made it, someone had to take care of observance of religious rites, and someone – to protect the peaceful labor of others. The life of each group was subject to certain laws that developed over the centuries.
Slavic rulers have long been called Princes. The power of the princes was hereditary, that is, passed from father to son. Only the prince’s son could be a prince. The most powerful prince in Kiev Rus was the Grand Duke of Kiev. You already know about
The princes were surrounded by soldiers – Boyars And Druzhinniki. They came from a respectable family close to the prince. Their main occupation was service in the prince’s army, for which they received a generous reward. Boyars and druzhinniki not only participated in military campaigns, but also occupied government posts.
With the introduction of Christianity, the clergy becomes more influential, who took care of the Christian church and all spiritual life.
Those who lived in the villages and worked on the land, called the Peasants, and the inhabitants of the cities – the commoners. Among the philistines were artisans and merchants.
Since the 16th century. the leading group of the population of Ukrainian lands is the Cossacks.
In the late 18 century. Ukrainian peasants and Cossacks became serfs. They became the property of the landowners. Millions of Ukrainians were born and died without personal freedom. The gentleman had the right
Great changes occurred on our lands in the second half of the 19th century. In addition to the landowners, peasants and artisans, new groups of the population appeared. The impoverished peasants went to cities where they hired to work in factories and factories. So they became Workers. The owners of these enterprises were called the Bourgeoisie. The group of intellectuals – teachers, doctors, agronomists, veterinarians, engineers, accountants, that is, the Intelligentsia – became more and more numerous. It is clear that the life of representatives of different groups was significantly different.
2. What groups of the population of the times of Kievan Rus is witnessed by Vladimir Monomakh?
Until now, a historical document, known as the “Teachings” by Vladimir Monomakh, has been preserved. With the “Teachings,” Prince Vladimir Monomakh, who ruled in Kiev in 1113-1125, addresses his children. The author describes an exemplary ruler, teaches the behavior and lifestyle that is worthy of this high rank. Monomakh writes that the prince must take care of his subjects; Do not rely on stewards, servants or boyars, but he himself must follow the progress of affairs in the state; Do not let strong suppress the weak; in the campaigns to live one life with the vigilantes. In another part of the “Teaching” Monomakh told various cases from his life, as well as his own good deeds: he voluntarily gave Oleg Chernigov principality, fought against strife, carried out 83 large campaigns, concluded 19 peace agreements with nomads.
3. What are the Ukrainian families in the 19th century? engaged in charity?
Various manifestations of the cultural and social life of Ukrainians in the 19th century. required large amounts of money. Who were those generous philanthropists, with financial support of which Ukrainian books and magazines were printed, Ukrainian performances were staged, scientific researches of Ukrainian history were conducted, Ukrainian museums were created, Ukrainian Sunday schools and cultural centers operated? Grateful memory of the descendants deserved the family of entrepreneurs-Ukrainians Simirenko, Yakhnenko, Khanenko. Possessing large states, they cared not only about economic, but also about spiritual life. Thanks to their funds, many hospitals, educational institutions, and churches in many cities of Ukraine have appeared. Vasily Simirenko contemporaries characterized as “… the most outstanding, most sincere Ukrainian among the so-called” bourgeois “,”
Bogdan Khanenko was a lawyer by profession and was engaged in collecting works of art from his youth. Therefore, after retiring, he devoted himself entirely to this cause. His interests were also shared by Varvara Nikolayevna’s wife, the daughter of Nicholas Tereschenko. Traveling to Western Europe, the couple bought paintings, glassware, valuable fabrics. A real pearl for his collection is the “Portrait of the Infanta Margarita” by the Spanish artist of the 17th century. Diego Velasquez – Bogdan Khanenko acquired in 1912 in Berlin. Subsequently, the private collection turned into a museum. Now it is the Bogdan Museum of Art and Varvara Khanenko – the richest treasury of works of world art in Ukraine.