Composition about Saratov

It was founded on July 2 (12), 1590 by Prince G. O. Zasekin and Boyar F. M. Turov. The city was built on the high right bank of the Volga River at the very confluence of the river Guselka (in the modern-between Pristan and Saratov). According to local historians, the name “Saratov” came from the Tatar-Mongolian words: “sary” – yellow and “tau” – mountain. Most likely, the name of the city gave Sokolovaya mountain. Yellow in color, it rises above the surrounding terrain, and at one time served as a wonderful landmark for all travelers on the Volga.

SARATOV REGION, in the Russian Federation. 100,2 thousand km 2. 2722 thousand inhabitants (1993), urban 75%. 17 cities, 33 urban-type settlements (1993). The center is Saratov. The Volga divides the Saratov region into an elevated right bank and a low-lying left bank. The average temperature in January is -12 ° C. July 22 ° C. Precipitation is 250-450 mm per year. The main river is the

Volga. Machine building and metalworking (machine tools, trolley buses, agricultural machines, bearings, diesel engines, refrigerators, etc.); production of gas and oil; oil refining, chemical, building materials, woodworking, light, food industry. Saratov HPP on the Volga. Balakovo NPP. Crops of wheat, rye, maize, millet, barley, sugar beet, sunflower, mustard, flax curd, vegetables. Fruit growing. Irrigated agriculture. Breed cattle, pigs, sheep. Poultry farming. Shipping along the Volga. Gas pipelines: Saratov – Moscow, Saratov – Penza – Gorky – Cherepovets, Cf. Asia – Center. Resort them. V. I. Chapaeva.

The relief of the Saratov region includes mountains, hills, ravines, plains, valleys of rivers. The plainness and gradation of the relief are most characteristic here. The region underwent a rise and a dip during the entire geological period. This was accompanied by the formation of folds, ruptures of the earth’s crust. Several times the territory of the Trans-Volga has experienced immersion in the waters of the seas. Under the influence of water, wind and sun sedimentary

rocks were destroyed. As a result, for many centuries the plains acquired a wavy character. So gradually the relief of the region developed.

The Volga River divides the territory of the region into two parts: a right bank in the west, an elevated left bank in the East, and a lower one. On the territory of the Right Bank are the Volga Upland, and on the Left Bank stretches the Syrtian plain, bordered in the east by the heights of the Common Syrt and the Caspian lowland.

The Volga Upland extends along the right bank of the Volga, it is elevated in the east and abruptly cuts off near the Volga, and in the west its slopes are low and gently sloping and gradually pass into the Oka-Don lowland. The eastern and northern slopes of the mountains in the form of separate hills, the maximum mark of 379 meters is in the territory of Khvalynsky district. To the high parts of the Volga Upland are the Serpentine Mountains, which stretched from the town of Volsk to the village of Voskresensky along the Volga. The highest of them are the Great Lighthouse and Malinikha.

In the north of the city of Saratov there is the Sokolovaya Mountain, in the south – Altynnaya, in the west – the Lysogorsky Massif. On the border with the Volgograd region rises a cliff, according to legend there was the camp of the famous ataman Stepan Razin.

On the right bank of the Volga you can observe numerous ravines and landslides, most of them in the region of Khvalynsk, Volsk, Ust-Kurdyum, in the vicinity of Saratov from the Guselka River to the Glebuchy Gully, and from the village of Neftyanoy to the village of Lesopilny.

The Volga Upland is cut by river valleys of the Volga and Don basins. Elevated areas – the eastern edge of the Don Basin, the lowered areas – the Volga tributaries – Kurdyum, Tereshka and Chardim.

Privolzhskaya Upland according to the geological structure in its composition has Cretaceous deposits: chalk, clay, marl, gullies, sands and Paleogene deposits: flocks, sand, sandstones.

Osko-Don lowland is in the west of the region. It covers the basins of the rivers Khoper, Tersa and the right tributaries of the Medveditsa. According to the relief it is a flat plain with small hills, with a gradient from north to south, the average height is 160-190 meters. The geological structure is composed of young loamy and sandy rocks overlain by moraines with boulders.

Between the Volga Upland and the Syrtian plain in the east lies the Volga valley – a vast stepped plain. Great influence on its formation was rendered by internal and external relief-forming factors.

In the Trans-Volga between the Common Syrt and the Volga Upland is a vast lowland – Syrtovaya Plain. Its relief is calm, the slope is from the north to the south, towards the Caspian lowland, to the west, to the Volga.

A characteristic feature of the plain is the vast watershed massifs – the syrtas. The average height of the plain is 60 – 100 meters above sea level, but the highest – 130 – 180 meters.

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Composition about Saratov