Climate, properties of water masses and the organic world of the Atlantic Ocean

Climate, properties of water masses and the organic world of the Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean extends in all climatic zones, therefore the climate of its open spaces is quite diverse. Most of the ocean is in tropical and temperate latitudes. Climatic conditions here define the trade winds and the western winds. The strongest winds reach the temperate latitudes of the southern part of the Atlantic Ocean. Because of the strong winds and storms, these latitudes are called “roaring forties.”

In the North Atlantic area near. Iceland is the center of the birth of cyclones, largely affecting the nature of the entire Northern Hemisphere. That’s why the North Atlantic is figuratively called the “weather kitchen” of Europe.

Features of climate affect the properties of water masses. The mean surface water temperature in the Atlantic

Ocean is much lower than in the Pacific. This is due to the influence of cold water and ice coming from the Arctic Ocean and from the Antarctic.

The salinity of the water masses in some parts of the Atlantic is somewhat higher than the average, since a considerable amount of moisture evaporating from the surface is carried by winds to nearby continents.

The currents in the Atlantic Ocean, due to its considerable extent from the north to the south, have an almost meridional orientation. They are characterized by the extreme activity of moving water masses from one latitude to another. In the high latitudes there are many icebergs and drifting ice. Icebergs in the north slip from about. Greenland, and in the south – from the mainland Antarctica. In the Northern Hemisphere, the remains of icebergs can sometimes be observed at the latitudes of the Azores and Bermudas. After the death of the giant passenger ship “Titanic” was organized by the International Ice Patrol. Now the motion of the icebergs is observed with the help of artificial Earth satellites. Information on their movement quickly arrives at ships that are in this part of the ocean.

The organic world of the Atlantic Ocean is poorer in its species composition than the Pacific. This is explained by the geological youth of the first and more

cool climatic conditions. But, despite the limited number of species, fish and other marine animals in this ocean are quite numerous.

In the Atlantic Ocean, as in the Pacific, there are almost all geographical zones. The natural complexes of separate seas and bays are distinctive. In particular, this applies to the inner seas: the Mediterranean. Black. Northern and Baltic. The organic world is more rich in temperate latitudes. The most favorable conditions for the life of many fish species have developed in the northern and northwestern parts of the ocean, where flows of warm and cold currents are mixed. Here, cod, herring, sea bass, mackerel, capelin are of industrial importance.

In the northern subtropical belt is the Sargasso Sea, known in the world for its uniqueness. This is a sea without shores, because its boundaries form ocean currents. Its name was Sargasso Sea received from a huge accumulation of sargasso algae in it. His water has a high temperature and salinity.

Climate, properties of water masses and the organic world of the Atlantic Ocean