Description is an integral part of the composition of any art work. The description can also be in the argumentative part of the argument.
The description depicts some phenomenon and the disclosure of its characteristics. The action as such is absent in the descriptions, the picture is most often depicted as static. The most common themes for writing essays are portraits, heroes’ states, nature, etc. Among the portraits, an external and internal description (feelings of heroes) is distinguished, which are closely related. The description of nature can be not just a background, but a parallel to the state of the hero.
In the descriptions, it is most important to use the exact wording when characterizing people or places. The descriptive text is characterized by the use of adjectives and verbs in the present tense. The most vivid signs that create an image are transmitted by comparisons, metaphors, metonymies, words with an appraisal value, epithets, symbols, etc.
Depending on the wording of the topic, the descriptive parts of the text can form the basis of all the reasoning, or only a part of it.
For example, in the following topics the description will form the basis of the entire work:
1. Portrait characteristics of Pechorin.
2. Ideological and artistic role of the scene in Otradnoye (based on Leo Tolstoy’s novel War and Peace).
And in the following topics the description is an integral part:
1. M. Yu. Lermontov’s mastery in the construction of Pechorin’s image.
2. Happy moments in the life of Prince Andrew.
3. Conflict in the drama of Ostrovsky AN “The Thunderstorm” and its development.
From the narrative works in school practice there is a story. At the entrance exams applicants write stories rarely. As a rule, the story is used in high school for learning and mastering such concepts as composition, plot.
The ability to understand the structure of the story written by the master of the poetic word, the attempt to write the story itself develop the ability of aesthetic perception of a work of art, form the ability to briefly and dynamically expound narrative texts on the principle of artistic narrative or literary editing.
The narrative describes successive actions, tells about the events in their time sequence. Compositions-narratives include such components as the initiation,
the development of action, the culmination (the most important moment in the development of the action), and the denouement (the end of the action).
Since in the narrative text the action comes to the fore, it often uses lexical means, denoting a temporal sequence or a change of phenomena, and the verbs are used in the past tense.
On the narrative parts of the literary text, an entire work can be built, for example, “Ways of searching for the meaning of life by Prince Andrew.” The whole argumentative part of this work will be a condensed narrative about the main stages of the life of Andrei Bolkonsky.
The most common type of composition. As a rule, it is essay-reasoning that meets at the entrance examinations.
Reasonings on the literary theme can be in different genres: from the review of the book read and to the literary critical article and a brief literary review.
All the variety of wording of topics can be reduced to three main types:
1) The theme-concept (phenomenon) is the formulation of a topic in which there is no direct indication of the idea of reasoning, the author defines it himself, for example, “The Image of Evgeny Bazarov.”
The theme-concept gives the greatest scope for independence: the author of the reasoning himself determines the problem contained in the topic, he himself solves it, ie, he formulates the basic idea of the work.