The structure and properties of the geographical shell

The structure and properties of the geographical shell


1. What is the structure of the geographical envelope?

The geography of science studies geography.

Geographic envelope is a complex formation, resulting from the interaction and interpenetration of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere.

The hydrosphere and the biosphere are included in the geographical envelope completely, and the lithosphere and atmosphere are only partially. The interaction of geospheres in the geographical envelope occurs under the influence of the energy of the Sun and the internal energy of the Earth.

2. What properties are inherent only in the geographical envelope?

The interaction of different geospheres in the space of the geographical envelope leads to the fact that it has a number of properties that each sphere does not possess individually. For example, three states of matter – solid, liquid and gaseous – are possible only within the geographical envelope. This is one of the reasons that it was in the geographical envelope that life began and developed, a person appeared. A person uses the substances of all other spheres for his life. On the lithosphere are cities and other settlements, turned into soil, the upper part of the lithosphere gives people vegetative food, the biosphere has become a food source for animals, but without air and water, not only man, but all plants, animals and even microorganisms can not live.

3. What makes the geographical envelope an integral natural formation?

The geographic envelope is an integral formation, and changing one of its parts will certainly affect the state of other parts. Water is part of the air, and air, in turn, is in the water. Both water and air are in the lithosphere and together with the biosphere contribute to the formation of such a special natural component as the soil that is necessary for plant growth. Plants, in turn, are used by man and animals. The most important property of the geographical envelope is the circulation of matter and energy.

We have already thoroughly acquainted ourselves with the cycle of water in nature and with the circulation of air masses. The biological cycle is of great importance for life on Earth. Under the influence of sunlight in green plants, a new organic substance is formed from water and carbon dioxide. This substance serves as food for living organisms, which, dying, fall into the soil, and promotes the life of green plants, giving them mineral substances.



This biological cycle of matter and energy underlies the life of all living beings. Moreover, each new cycle differs from the previous one in that more organic matter is formed than is lost. So there is a forward movement to the development of the biosphere and other spheres of the geographical envelope. Together with its constituent parts, the geographical envelope as a whole is changing and developing.

4. Make a story about the role of each component in the life of nature.

In order to proceed with this task, it is necessary to accurately represent what natural components are. Natural components – this is what the geospheres consist of, which, when interacting, form a geographical envelope.

Consider the role of such components of nature as rocks and minerals. These components make up the lithosphere. They are part of all minerals and are the basis for soil formation. Rocks and minerals make up the upper, solid part of the lithosphere – the earth’s crust, which is the basis of all life processes occurring on Earth. Rocks and minerals are used as building materials; they serve as the basis for the construction of various buildings.



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The structure and properties of the geographical shell