Natural conditions of the Caucasus

1. In what direction is the Great Caucasus stretching?

The Great Caucasus stretches in a sublatitudinal direction from the west-north-west to the east-south-east.

2. Which of the three parts is divided into the Main Caucasian Range?

Several mountain ranges are distinguished in the Caucasus mountains. The axial part of the Caucasus is the Main and Side Ridges. They are fringed from the north by lower chains – the Rocky and Grassy ridges.

Along the stretch of the Caucasian ridge, four different segments are usually distinguished, they are called segments. The highest is the Central Caucasus, located between Elbrus and Kazbek. Here there are all five five-thousandths of Russia, i. e. mountain peaks higher than 5000 m. This, except Elbrus and Kazbek, Dykhtau, Shkhara, Djangitau. The tops of the Lateral ridge sometimes turn out to be higher than the Main watershed. From Elbrus to the city of Fisht stretches the Western Caucasus, it is below the Central, but

above the North-West, which is represented by a low Black Sea chain. To the east of Kazbek is the Eastern Caucasus, it is higher than the Western Caucasus.

Thus, in the Caucasus four parallel ridges are distinguished, divided into 4 segments, but to simplify the picture, three main ones are shown in your figure. These parts differ not only in relief, but also in geological structure, climatic features, vegetation and the economic use of the landscapes that form them.

3. Remember what high-altitude belts characterize the northern slopes of the Caucasus.

On the northern slope of the Caucasus, the following belts are distinguished:

    Belt of the steppes; Belt of broad-leaved forests; Belt of beech forests; Subalpine meadow belt; Alpine meadow belt; Belt of nival landscapes.

4. Which states of Transcaucasia the Russian border passes along the Main Caucasian Range?

The main Caucasian ridge is bordered by Russia with Georgia and Azerbaijan.

5. Trace the variability of climatic conditions from the Black Sea coast to the east to the coast of the Caspian Sea. What factors determine

the difference between the western, middle and eastern parts of Ciscaucasia?

The temperature regime within the region is almost the same. In the North Caucasus, from the west to the east, the amount of precipitation decreases, hence the continentality of the climate increases. This can be explained by the weakening influence of the Atlantic Ocean.

6. How and under what influence are the climatic conditions changing from the Rostov region to the southern borders of the district?

The climate of the region is characterized by latitudinal and vertical zoning. For high mountains – altitude zonality, lower temperatures and increased precipitation when climbing mountains. If you remember, the average temperature gradient is 6 degrees Celsius per kilometer, that is, theoretically, when climbing to the top of Elbrus, the temperature can drop by 30 ° C.

The ridges of the Caucasus are located on the border of the temperate and subtropical belts. The maximum amount of precipitation falls on the south-western slopes, which is explained by the direction of the prevailing winds.

7. Give an assessment of the agroclimatic resources of the area.

Agroclimatic resources of the plains are favorable for crop production. Here you can grow most of the heat-loving crops, and in some areas even get two crops a year. The Black Sea coast of the Caucasus is the only subtropical climate in Russia where it is possible to grow mandarins and tea. Mountain steppes and meadows are beautiful pastures.

8. What are the peculiarities of the geographical position of the North Caucasus differs from other areas that you have already studied?

Firstly, this is the first mountainous region, which explains the features of the climate and the range of minerals extracted. Secondly, the North Caucasus is the southernmost region. Here is the extreme southern point of Russia and the only corner of the subtropical climate in the country. This area is enclosed between two warm seas, and its ports can function all year round. This region is facing one side to Europe, the other to Asia.

The most southern point of the mountain Bazarduziu – a kind of natural boundary sign: the southern slope belongs to Azerbaijan, the northern one – to Russia. In fairness, it should be noted that the extreme southern curve of the border between Russia and Azerbaijan is a few kilometers south-west of Bazarduziu peak, but here the border passes through a sparsely populated area, and near the extreme south point there are no large ones designated on the population maps points. The nearest object on the map is Mount Bazarduziu. Closer to the southern point of Russia is Mount Ragdan, but it can be found only on large-scale maps. The southernmost Russian settlement is the Lezghian aul Kurush. This is the most high-mountainous village to the west of the Urals.

In translation from Turkic Bazarduzu means “market area”. To the east of this peak in the high-mountainous Azerbaijani Shakhnabad valley, in the ancient times, there were annual large multinational fairs, where merchants and buyers brought products of carpet-weavers, chasers and carvers for metal and wood, Damascus steel and products, not only from the Caucasus, but also from the Near and Middle East.

9. What are the features of the tectonic structure of the territory, as they are reflected in the modern relief?

The North Caucasus is a young, tectonic region: young, still developing mountains coexist with the young platform. For the mountains of the Cenozoic folding, the alpine type of relief named after the name of the most studied European mountains is characteristic. Here, as a result of intensive glaciation, peaked peaks and sharp ridges, eaten by circuses, formed steep and rocky slopes. Cirques or punches are called a cup-shaped depression in the upper part of the mountains, formed under the influence of glaciers, snowfields and frost weathering.

10. Name the main mineral deposits and explain their location.

The patterns of the location of minerals in the Caucasus are explained by the conditions of their formation. To the folded areas, composed of solid crystalline rocks, metal minerals are confined.

By the number and diversity of minerals, the area is inferior to other regions. Significant reserves of oil, gas, non-ferrous metals and non-metallic raw materials. For local needs, coal is used for the eastern limb of Donbass.

11. What natural features have defined this region as the main recreational area of ​​Russia?

The unique combination of climatic conditions with warm sea and mountainous terrain allowed the North Caucasus to become a resort zone of Russia.

12. Is it possible to assert that the Don River for the North Caucasus region is the same as the Volga for the Volga Region?

Probably, this is not entirely fair. Don is of great importance, but only for the northern part of the region. As you remember, the Volga flows not only through the Volga region, but also through other regions and has enormous economic significance practically throughout its entire length.

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (1 votes, average: 5.00 out of 5)

Natural conditions of the Caucasus