John Steinbeck is a famous American writer who left a rich artistic heritage. In his writings, he denounced the social plagues of American society, combining it with deep psychologism in the characters’ images. In 1962 Steinbeck was awarded the Nobel Prize “for a realistic and poetic gift, combined with mild humor and an acute social vision.” John Steinbeck came from a family of Irish immigrants. His mother, a teacher, instilled in her son a love of literature. Entering Stanford University, John could not finish it, since there was nothing to pay for the training. In search of money, he changed many professions: he raised bricksRead More →


Poems and songs of the Scottish poet R. Burns are very popular in his homeland. This popularity is explained by the fact that Burns’s poetry is closely connected with the folk song of Scotland. Burns is the son of a Scottish farmer, the songs of his ancestors are familiar to him from the cradle. It was in folk art he found a living basis for his future poems, songs, poems. Burns often uses folk tales and legends. So, the basis of the poem “John Barley Grain” is based on the popular belief about spirits that live in bread grains. The poet reinterpreted this legend andRead More →

As a playwright Shakespeare appeared, in all probability, in the late 1580’s, and by 1592 he had gained enough fame to become the target of critical attacks by fellow feuders. Shakespeare’s work began with chronicles that represented the events of national history. The appeal to this genre allowed the playwright to develop a large-scale artistic and philosophical depiction of the relationship between rulers and the people, to outline the contradictions between politics and morality, to give a deep philosophical interpretation of the categories of history and time. The next period of literary activity was marked by the appearance of a number of comedies. Early ShakespeareanRead More →

The novel “Stranger” is written in the genre of the philosophical parable. This multifaceted work, recreating the situation of social alienation rights. Roman – notes of the ill-fated murderer who is awaiting execution after the trial, are willy-nilly perceived as an invitation to think about the fairness of the sentence, like a petition for clemency, addressed to the court of human conscience. In the drafts of A. Camus there are various versions of the title of the novel: “Happy Man”, “Indifferent”; the name on which A. Camus was chosen could be translated as “stranger”, “stranger”, “outsider”; there was another name given to the Russian literaryRead More →

… Not one human soul Has received such severe hardening In trials, like him. O. de Balzac. Gobsek I do not know how you can judge or evaluate a person living at another time, in another society, under other laws. But if such a question arises, then I prefer to look not only at the results of human life, but also on the motives of actions that moved this person. It seems to me that in the evaluation of Hobsak, Derville was the most righteous person, who managed to get to know him better than anyone else, and decided that in this man there existRead More →

The first novel of Cervantes “Galatea” was written in a traditional manner, but the usual artistic means and techniques received a new, deeper philosophical content in it. His distinctive feature, which later determined the construction of the novel “Don Quixote”, was the erection of an idealized world of feelings and relationships into the rank of a higher reality. Here, for the first time, emerged the outlines of the utopia of the “golden age”, which later formed the most important semantic line of “Don Quixote”. A new stage in the writer’s creative development marked his plays, which reflected the combination of heroism and irony, as wellRead More →

The protagonist of the novel by Charles D. Dickens “David Copperfield” in his youth consistently finds himself in two educational institutions, strikingly different from each other. Talking about the formation of the boy’s personality, Dickens shows us what a school should and should not be. After the death of her husband, David’s mother married a second time to Mr. Murdstone, who immediately disliked the boy for direct and open temper. When he was a child, he was stunned with fear and almost did not remember what Mr. Murdstone’s sister was trying to teach him. When the boy decided to punish, he bit his father inRead More →

The profound philosophical content of works, the direction of poetic thought to comprehend world being in its integrity; artistic development of the concept of the unity of life and death, most vividly embodied in leitmotivous images of the plant world; comprehension of life defeats, losses and crises as painful but necessary conditions for a person’s inner development and widening the boundaries of his spiritual experience; the theme of loneliness, understood as a state of desperate “forgetfulness” in the external world, which, however, opens the possibility for a person to self-comprehend, immerse himself in the depths of the inner world and comprehend the hidden “core ofRead More →

None of the periods of development of art does not pass without a trace. Artistic discoveries of classicism are alive to the present day. One of the testimonies of the living significance of classicism in literature is the work of Moliere. Jean Baptiste Poquelin lived a very short life, but forever entered the history of art. The name of Moliere can rightfully be named among the greatest artists. He was a great playwright, but above all an actor, an actor with all his heart, with all the thoughts that belonged to the theater. Many of his contemporaries, including famous writers of the 17th century, wroteRead More →

If the fathers are trampled on with their feet, Fatherland will perish. O. de Balzac. Father Gorio At all times, respect for the elders was one of the main pillars on which not only the family but the entire society relies. Children from all over the world are brought up in fairy tales and stories, many of which tell of the endless parental love and the appreciation or ingratitude of children. The remarkable novel Honore de Balzac “Father Gorio” today is perceived as a fairy tale for adults, because the time in which the events described there have passed. But something does not work, afterRead More →

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