The ancestors of the world-famous American writer of German descent Kurt Vonnegut arrived in America long before the appearance of the Statue of Liberty. Both grandfather and father Vonnegut were born in Indiana, but always felt “like Germans in America.” The future writer was born in the city of Indianapolis, he received his education at the Cornell University of New York State – he started as a biochemist. In his youth, Kurt Vonnegut revolved among young scientists and worked closely with his brother Bernard, “a man who knows more about lightning than any other in the world.” It was during these years that Vonnegut hadRead More →

The eighteenth century, completed by the Great French Revolution, developed under the sign of doubt, destruction, denial and passionate belief in the victory of reason over superstition and prejudice, civilization over barbarism, humanism over tyranny and injustice. Therefore, historians call it the Age of Enlightenment. The ideology of the Enlighteners triumphed in the era when the old medieval way of life was collapsing and a new, bourgeois order was emerging, progressive for that time. The Enlightenment activists ardently defended the ideas of cultural development, self-government, freedom, defended the interests of the masses, branded the yoke of feudalism, stagnation and conservatism of the church. The stormyRead More →

During one of the battles at the front of the First World War, a mine exploded next to Hemingway, resulting in 227 injuries. To stand on his feet, he had to withstand 12 operations. However, the physical trauma was stronger than physical suffering, which had an effect throughout the life of the writer and developed into a pernicious mental illness in his last years. Recalling his first steps in the literary field in Paris, Hemingway talked about how he went to a cafe in the morning, where he actually wrote: “Blue notebooks, two pencils and a sharpener, marble tables, the smell of early morning, freshRead More →

… Baudelaire, I’m thinking about you. P. Antokolsky For many generations of readers, the French poet Charles Baudelaire remains a lonely dreamer, a romantic ghost in the streets of the world city, waiting in the night for a mysterious beauty wandering the shadow. Baudelaire is the forerunner of a whole trend in literature and art, called decadence. He was the first to feel the onset of the crisis in the spiritual culture of the late XIX – early XX century and told his contemporaries about this. The future poet began as a journalist and literary critic. He opened to his compatriots the talent of Delacroix,Read More →

Reflecting on art somehow, Stendhal suggested the following: “Every artist must look at nature in his own way.” What can be more stupid than looking at the nature borrowed from another person, and sometimes at a person with a completely opposite character. ” The writer followed this statement to the end of his life, creating his works, which today are “letters to the future.” After the completion of the Parma Cloister, Stendhal is full of new creative ideas and ideas. However, old age was imperceptibly approaching, and most of his plans remained incomplete. Roman “Lumiel” and remained lying on the writer’s desk unfinished and wasRead More →

I started to read books early. Sometimes they took too much free time from me, but they also gave incomparably more. The surrounding world, the secrets of nature, I learn from books. Several times I re-read the wonderful pages of the novel by the English writer Daniel Defoe “Robinson Crusoe.” “The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe” told me about how I experienced the loneliness of a “sailor from York.” After being shipwrecked on an uninhabited island in the West Indies, he managed to live on it for twenty-eight years, at first all alone, and then with the savage Pyatnitsa, to master this island and start aRead More →

Classicism – a direction in the literature of the XVII – beginning of the XIX century, focusing on the aesthetic standards of ancient art. The main idea is the approval of the priority of the mind. At the heart of aesthetics is the principle of rationalism: a work of art must be intelligently constructed, logically verified, and must capture the imperishable, essential properties of things. The works of classicism are characterized by high civil themes, strict observance of certain creative norms and rules, reflection of life in ideal images that gravitate toward the universal pattern (G. Derzhavin, I. Krylov, M. Lomonosov, V. Trediakovsky, D. Fonvizin).Read More →

Homer’s poem “Odyssey” is an exciting legend about the amazing adventures of the king of Ithaca. Reading it, we find ourselves in the magical world of giants and monsters, where Odysseus wandered. It was a difficult journey to the homeland of the hero, whom the sea had been born for ten years. Once he approached an unknown island. Cyclops lived there – monstrous one-eyed giants. Chief among them was Polyphemus. Odysseus and his comrades wandered into his empty cave. In the evening, her terrible owner appeared in the cave. Odysseus politely asked him for a night’s lodging, but the Cyclops, seizing two companions of Odysseus,Read More →

I. Turgenev’s novel “Fathers and Sons” was completed in 1862. In this work, the writer touched upon profound political, philosophical and aesthetic problems, captured real life conflicts, revealed the essence of the ideological struggle between the main social forces in Russia in the early 1960s. The central figure of the novel is the democrat-raznochinets Evgenie Bazarov. At the first meeting of Bazarov with the rest of the heroes of the novel, the author presents us with the appearance of a young man. Clothing, manners and behavior of the hero speak of his belonging to a simple people, and that he is proud of this, andRead More →

With whom did his struggles leak? With yourself, with yourself… B. Pasternak In the center of Stendhal’s novel is the fate of the descendant of the lower classes, who is trying to break his way into a higher society, to fame and fortune. The author traces the whole path of the hero in detail, from the first success to the death on the guillotine. But the spring of the novel’s action is not only the overcoming by Julien Sorel of obstacles on the way to his ideal, to his goal, but also the hero’s struggle with himself, the conflict between once and for all establishedRead More →

Page 1 of 1712345678910...Last »