Confucius – a great ancient Chinese thinker, philosopher, founder of Confucianism. The real name of Confucius is Kun Qiu. He is also often found in the literature as: Kun-tzu, Kun Fu-Tzu or simply Tzu. At the age of 22 he became famous as the first professional teacher in China.
Confucius was born in the town of Qufu, in the family of a military of the impoverished aristocrats Kun. His mother was a concubine, and after the death of his father, Confucius brought up his son alone. The family lived in poverty, and since early childhood, Confucius began to work and studied self-education in order to take a worthy place in life and not to disgrace his noble family. Training gave its results, and soon he received the work of an official, head of the barn, and then – cattle.
However, the true vocation of Confucius was to pass on his knowledge and teach other people. So, at the age of 22 he began to practice private lessons. Confucius worked hard and soon became the most famous teacher in China. In a private school, he discovered four disciplines: literature, language, morality and politics. And the students were accepted there, regardless of their material position and origin.
At the age of 50, Confucius began his career in public service, becoming the first counselor in the kingdom of Lou. But having divergent views on public policy, he was forced to resign and leave the service. After that, Confucius traveled with his students in China for 13 years. In 484 BC. e. he returned to Lou where he continued his teaching activities. Confucius had many students, however, the closest and most devoted, whose names are reliably known, there are only 26.
Together with teaching, the great philosopher also devoted time to books. So, his pen belongs to the book “Chunqiu”. The students of Confucius collected the statements and conversations of their teacher, and combined them in the book “Lun Yu” – the main revered book in Confucianism. In addition, Confucius collected, edited and distributed many books, including: “Shi-ching” and “I Ching”.
The doctrine of Confucius, called “Confucianism,” was based on the desire of man to live in harmony and happiness. The philosopher put forward the main ethical postulate: “Do not do to a man what you do not want yourself.”
The death of Confucius came in 479 BC. e. He was buried in a special cemetery, where he was supposed to bury his descendants and close disciples.