Albrecht Durer – German painter, engraver, theorist, the most influential personality of the German school, was born in Nuremberg.
Being the son of a jeweler, Durer spent some time in his biography working as a student, first in his father’s workshop. Since 1489, he worked in the studio of the artist Michael Wolgemut. After graduation he went on a trip, visited Kolmar, Basel, Strasbourg, and in 1494 in Italy. During his travels, Durer receives a lot of knowledge from primary sources. So much I learned from Martin Schongauer, the famous engraver of the time.
While in Italy, Durer was carried away by the style of Mantegna and Bellini. Carefully watching the realistic details in the painting, Durer developed a rational system of perspective, as well as human proportions. However, in addition, Durer created paintings under the influence of imagination. In 1498 he performed a series of huge engravings on the theme of prophetic foresight.
After 1500, Durer began to be more interested in the history of art, and his engraving work is saturated with many small details. In the first decade of the 16th century Dürer created two series of engravings “Passion of Christ”, “Life of the Virgin”. In 1505, he made a second trip to Italy. He stayed in Venice for about two years. His sensory perception of the surrounding world was reflected in a variety of canvases, including watercolors, depicting the plant and animal world. In addition, he created an excellent series of landscapes of the Alps, performed during his journey to Italy.
Being a friend of the most famous humanists in his time, Durer in some of his works expressed humanistic inclinations. For some time he explored the ideal human proportions. For the emperor Maximilian I Durer has developed several projects, including engraving, known as “Triumphal Arch”, “Triumphal Procession”. As a theorist, Durer wrote a treatise on human proportions, work on practical geometry, and also a treatise on building fortifications.
In some of the later works of Albrecht Durer, the influence of Luther’s theories was reflected. In 1502, Dürer went to the Netherlands, where he was recognized as a master. Thus, Durer became the first German artist recognized outside his homeland. In the second decade of the 16th century, Dürer concentrated on translating light and tonal effects into graphics.
Durer’s painting “Portrait of His Father” is in Florence, his self-portrait, as well as some of the early famous canvases – in the Louvre. Other well-known works by Dürer are “Paumgartner Altar” in Munich, “Feast of the Rose Garlands”, “Adoration of the Trinity” in Vienna. The work “Heller Altar” was destroyed by fire in the 18th century.
Dürer portrayed human figures, and especially this manifested itself in mythological scenes, with an excellent sense of proportion. Being a talented artist and engraver, Durer created many excellent engravings for the entire biography. His work had a great impact on the next generation.