Zone and azonal natural complexes of the Earth

It is impossible to understand the world around us, studying only its separate parts. In nature, everything is interconnected, woven into one whole by thousands of visible and invisible threads. Unravel this tangle and understand the unity of air, water, soil, plants and animals, see the harmony in this, at first glance, chaos and trying to modern geography. It is this science that studies the causes of processes and phenomena occurring in nature. Without knowledge of causes, one can not foresee their consequences. Remember at least what the consequences were caused by the unjustified dehumidification of marshes in large areas, the creation of large reservoirs on the plains, excessive deforestation.

The largest natural complex of the Earth is the geographical envelope. Within its limits, the lower layers of the atmosphere, the upper part of the lithosphere, the hydrosphere and living organisms interact. After all, the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere formed on the Earth

simultaneously and had a permanent impact on each other.

The geographic envelope is integral, that is, there is a close interconnection and interdependence of components: relief, atmospheric air, water, soils, organic world. The change in any component of nature gradually affects the entire natural complex.

The geographical envelope is not homogeneous. Due to the uneven supply of solar energy on the earth’s surface with sprat, important components of nature change: climatic conditions, soils, vegetation and fauna. Consequently, the geographical envelope has clearly expressed zonal differences. Thus, for the equatorial region, where the earth’s surface receives a significant amount of heat and moisture, the richness of the organic world and the dynamic course of natural processes are characteristic. And the polar regions due to severe climatic conditions have a meager organic world and sluggish natural processes.

So, the geographical envelope consists of natural complexes. We already know that the natural complex is a part of the earth’s surface that is characterized by features of

the manifestation of the components of nature that are in a complex interaction. Natural complexes are distinguished by their size and educational conditions. Each natural complex has its own boundaries of distribution, it differs in unity and appearance. Visible externally part of the natural complex is called a landscape.

If you look around from a high place, then all that we see is a landscape. Landscapes call any territory together with the existing components of nature. The name of the landscape often reflects the prevailing type of vegetation.

Each natural complex can be represented as a kind of food. This dish was prepared by nature itself from the available ingredients, adding seasonings in the form of solar heat and moisture. All this is mixed in different proportions and variants. But there are exceptions. Thus, the presence of mountain systems on the land surface violates the latitudinal order of the distribution of natural complexes.

Thus, conditionally, all natural complexes of the Earth can be divided into two main groups: zonal, formed due to a natural change in the components of nature from the equator to the poles, and azonal, formed with violation of the zonal regularity due to differences in the structure of the earth’s crust and in the relief. Depending on the peculiarities of local conditions, for example, such azonal complexes as oases in deserts, floodplain meadows in river valleys, etc.,

The largest natural complexes within the Geographic Shell are continents and oceans. Their formation is due to the structure of the earth’s crust. On the continents and in the oceans there are smaller natural complexes. Thus, in the World Ocean, natural complexes of individual oceans, seas, bays, straits, etc. are singled out. On the land, depending on geographical latitude, natural complexes of equatorial forests, tropical deserts, steppes, taiga, etc. are distinguished. Examples of smaller natural complexes can be a ravine, a lake, a river valley.

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Zone and azonal natural complexes of the Earth