1. What determines the salinity of ocean waters?
The world ocean – the main part of the hydrosphere – is a continuous water shell of the globe. The waters of the World Ocean are heterogeneous in composition and differ in salinity, temperature, transparency and other signs.
The salinity of the waters in the ocean depends on the conditions of evaporation of water from the surface and the inflow of fresh water from the land surface and with “atmospheric precipitation.” Evaporation of water occurs more intensively in equatorial and tropical latitudes and slows down in temperate and circumpolar latitudes. If the salinity of the northern and southern seas is compared, it can be established that the water in the southern seas is more salty. The salinity of
2. What are the differences in water temperature in the ocean?
The water temperature in the World Ocean also varies depending on geographical latitude. In tropical and equatorial latitudes, the water temperature can reach +30 ° C and above, in the polar regions it drops to -2 ° C. At lower temperatures ocean water freezes. Seasonal changes in the ocean water temperature are more pronounced in the temperate climatic zone. The average annual temperature of the World Ocean is 3 ° C higher than the average temperature of the land. This heat is transferred to land by means of air masses of the atmosphere.
3. In which parts of the ocean are ice formed? How do they affect the nature of the Earth and the economic activities of man?
The waters of the World Ocean freeze in arctic, subarctic and partly in temperate latitudes. The resulting ice cover affects the climate of the continents, making it difficult to use cheap sea transport in the north for cargo transportation.
4. What is called
Water masses, by analogy with air masses, are named by the geographical belt in which they were formed. Each water mass has its own characteristic properties and differs from others in salinity, temperature, transparency and other characteristics. The water masses differ not only according to the geographical latitudes of their formation, but also depending on the depth. Surface water is different from deep and bottom. The deep and bottom waters are practically not affected by sunlight and heat. Their properties are more constant throughout the World Ocean, in contrast to surface subsidence whose properties depend on the amount of heat and light produced. Warm water on Earth is much more than cold. Residents of temperate latitudes with great pleasure spend their New Year holidays on the coasts of those seas and oceans, where the water is warm and clean. Tanning under the hot sun, swimming in salt and warm water, people restore strength and strengthen health.