1. From the course of national history, recall the reasons for the development of Siberia. What are the natural features of Siberia and why did it make it difficult and difficult to master it?
“The history of Russia is the history of the country that is being colonized.” Russia has constantly expanded its territory. The reason for this is a desire for wealth, a thirst for more territory. The huge territory of Siberia and the Far East was traversed by Russian explorers and was assigned to Russia in just 58 years. The development of this territory is only just beginning. Difficulties in the development of permafrost and swampiness, severe frosts in winter and the smell of summer. Impossibility to engage in plant growing in the open ground, and consequently, to feed a large population maintained a low population density. Now this territory has a very rare network of roads and underdeveloped infrastructure.
2. In the development of Siberia, roads played a special
role. Provide evidence that the Trans-Siberian Railway is the main axis of development of the territory. The Trans-Siberian railway stretches from Chelyabinsk to Vladivostok through Omsk, Irkutsk, and Khabarovsk. It is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the longest railway line with a length of 7 thousand km. The construction of the road lasted 25 years and in 1916 the European part of Russia, Siberia and the Far East were connected by the fastest and at the time reliable mode of transport.
To show the role of Transsib, it is enough to apply this highway to the population density map and list the cities that are located on this highway. And then to name the cities remote from it, especially emphasizing the ancient cities, which, remaining apart from the Transsib, did not receive further development for a long time, for example Tobolsk, Tomsk.
3. The collapse of the USSR led to a change in the transport and geographic location of Siberia. What changes, in your opinion, should happen in the future in the railway transport of Siberia?
The main changes are connected with the fact that three railway
lines connecting Siberia with the Urals appeared on the territory of Kazakhstan. They are clearly visible in Figure 140. This is a small section of the Trans-Siberian Railway and two more roads, which were called Middle Siberian and South Siberian. Although the border with Kazakhstan remains open, the significance of the Perm-Yekaterinburg-Omsk road is increasing every year. This road entirely passes through the territory of Russia, but its carrying capacity does not correspond to the increased flows of cargo and in the coming years should be increased.
In addition, further development should receive meridional highways. Often the transport development of the territory begins with roads, followed, as more expensive, by iron ones. For example, it is planned that until 2020, Western Siberia will contact Western China. A direct road will be laid through the territory of the Republic of Altai in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. The road is to be built through a 55-kilometer western section of the Russian-Chinese border: from the district center Kosh-Agach to the south-west in the direction of the Kanas Pass. The length of the motorway on the territory of Russia is 180 km. From the side of the People’s Republic of China to meet to build 80 km. It is believed that the road will give a powerful impetus to the development of border areas. Through the Republic of Altai has already laid a road to Mongolia.
4. What should be, in your opinion, perspective directions of development of the Siberian economy? Apparently, the raw material direction of the development of Siberia will continue for a long time. After oil it will be necessary to switch to coal. The largest coal basin, the Tunguska, remains almost untouched. The ore minerals and mountains of Southern Siberia are rich. However, treating Siberia only as a “raw material appendage” would be wrong. It is also necessary to develop the manufacturing industry, modernize agriculture in the southern regions. With the appropriate reconstruction, both crop production and livestock production can produce much more. While the development of these industries is dominated by an extensive way.