The population of Siberia

1. Using the map “Peoples of Russia”, determine in which territories of the Federation subjects live and to which language families and groups the indigenous peoples of Siberia are not included in the number of “title”: Shorians, Selkups, Nganasans, Chum.

2. Find out which of the peoples of Siberia Buddhism profess and why.

In Siberia Buddhism is practiced by Tuvans and Buryats. These peoples live in the south of Siberia along the border with Mongolia.

Buddhism – the oldest world religion, originated in ancient India in the VI-V centuries. BC. e. In the middle of the VII century. Buddhism spreads from India to Tibet, where it becomes from the second half of the VIII century. state religion. In the second half of the XVI century. Buddhism is accepted by the Mongols and Oirats, who formed in the 16th-18th centuries. huge Dzhungar khanate, as well as the Kalmyk Khanate, which entered in the middle of the XVII century. in the Moscow kingdom.

At the same time, Transbaikalia entered it, which simultaneously with the Russians was inhabited by Buryats, already professed Tibetan Buddhism. In 1741, Empress Elizabeth Petrovna legalized Buddhism and its monasteries in Russia.

3. Since the 1990s. Siberia has a negative balance in the migration exchange with European Russia. How can I explain this? Do you think it’s good or bad: a) for the migrants themselves; b) for the modern economy of Siberia; c) from the point of view of geopolitical interests of Russia?

As you remember from the course of geography of the 8th grade, the formation of the territory of Russia for several centuries was accompanied by “centrifugal” migration of the population: from the center of the country to the north, east and south. In the XX century. these processes continued until the 1980s. After the Great Patriotic War, the development of Siberia was a matter of state importance. “Constructions of the century” – cascades of hydroelectric power stations on the Angara and Yenisei, the Baikal-Amur Mainline – demanded the attraction of a

huge number of people. Work and life in Siberian conditions was stimulated by special “northern surcharges”, that is, the salary there was substantially higher than in the European territory of Russia. After the start of economic reforms and a deep crisis of funds to maintain the Siberian population was catastrophically short. The migration flow was reversed.

Like many other phenomena, this process has its both positive and negative sides. From the point of view of the migrants themselves, this is bad, because they leave their homes, they lose their good earnings. Only return to home, to a more natural habitat, to favorable climatic conditions can be positive. For the modern economy of Siberia this is a minus – the territory is deprived of labor. From the point of view of geopolitical interests of Russia, in the neighborhood with such a densely populated and active country like China, with the clearly perceived demographic pressure of the East, this can turn into a catastrophe.

4. You have read the ethnographic description of some peoples of Siberia. What new things did you learn for yourself? Find on the map the areas of settlement of these peoples. What do you think, what has changed in the life of Evenks and Buryats in our time?

Find the areas of settlement of Evenks, Altaians, Buryats, Tuvinians, Khakas and Mansi is not difficult. These peoples have their own national formations – subjects of the Federation. Buryat – even three such entities: the Republic of Buryatia, Ust-Ordynsky Buryat and Aginsky Buryat AO. Although sometimes the proportion of these peoples in the population of the subjects is negligible. So, in the Khanty-Mansiysk Okrug, only 0.9% of the Khanty people and 0.7% of the population are Mansi; in the Yamal-Nenets AO Nenets – 5.2%, Khanty – 1.5%, Selkup -0.3%; in the Dolgano-Nenets Autonomous District, the debt amounts to 8.9%, the Nenets -4.4%; in the Evenki Evenki 21%. The title people predominate only in Tyva and Aginsky Buryat Autonomous District. Altaians in Altai Republic 31, Khakassians in Khakassia 12%, Buryats in Buryatia 28%.

Of course, with the development of Siberia, the development of interregional relations, much has changed in the lives of the indigenous population of this territory. However, many Evenks continue to lead a traditional way of life, engaged in hunting and reindeer herding. The main branches of the economy of the Evenki Autonomous Okrug are furs and fisheries, reindeer husbandry, fur farming. Dairy cattle breeding and pig production are developing. The industry is poorly developed and is represented by the extraction of graphite, Iceland spar, coal mining. In 1985, in Evenkia, oil and gas reserves were discovered, and prospecting for diamond deposits was under way. However, the district’s budget is 90% subsidized – its revenues are formed from federal budget subsidies. The Evenk Center is not even a city, but an urban-type settlement – Tour with a population of only 5.7 thousand inhabitants, in which there is a forestry enterprise and a brick factory.

The weak development of industry and a low proportion of the urban population is similar to Evenkia and Aginsky Buryat Autonomous Okrug. In four urban settlements, including the administrative center of Aginskoye, the mining, forestry and food industries are represented. Most of the population is busy, as in the old times, with livestock breeding – they raise sheep, cattle, horses, and sow grain and fodder crops. But in Buryatia the life of the majority of the population has changed radically. 60% of the republic’s population live in cities and work in industrial enterprises and in the service sector.

5. Siberia has always been a place of exile from Central Russia. What do you think, what influence could the exiles have on the local population?

Among those exiled to Siberia were both political and religious opponents of the authorities, as well as criminal criminals. Their influence on the local population, of course, is not unique. Thus, the Decembrists exiled to Siberia exerted a great influence on the cultural development of the region. First brought to different mines and factories, the Decembrists had already been assembled in the Chita prison in the autumn of 1827, and in the autumn of 1830 they were transferred to a specially constructed prison under the Petrovsky factory. Now it is the city of Petrovsk-Zabaikalsky, where besides a well-known metallurgical plant there is a museum of the Decembrists. By eleven Decembrists their husbands came to exile, who did a lot for the enlightenment and education of local residents. As the terms of hard labor were completed, the Decembrists were assigned to a free settlement in various villages and cities of Siberia.

The role of the participants in the Polish Uprising of 1863-1864 is known, exiled to Siberia for the study of the nature of the region. Many names of these brave Poles remained on the map of Russia. Find on the maps the ridge of Chersky and the ridge of Chekanovsky. Ivan Demidovich Chersky compiled the first geological map of the Baikal coast. He proposed one of the first tectonic schemes of internal Asia, put forward the idea of ​​evolutionary development of the relief. Alexander Lavrentievich Chekanovsky explored the Primorsky Range. Central Siberian plateau, the Lower Tunguska, Olenek, lower reaches of the river. Lena, opened a ridge, named after him.

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The population of Siberia